The Founding Fathers


Important Terms, People, and Events


Confederacy  –  A confederacy is a form of government in which independent states are loosely joined, typically for common defense. Each independent state maintains power over the majority of its own affairs.

Confederation Congress  –  The governing body that consisted of representatives from each of the 13 states. Congress governed the affairs of the United States between the ratification of the Articles of Confederation in 1781 and the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

Conservatives  –  Political leaders who favored the formation of a strong central government and who thought the Articles of Confederation should grant more powers to the national government than to the state governments. Conservatives tended to fear the power of the masses and to favor government by the elite.

Impost  –  A form of tax applied to goods that are imported into a state or country. Imposts are typically used to make money, protect a home industry, or retaliate against another state or country.

Radicals  –  Political leaders who favored strong state governments and thought the Articles of Confederation should remove most power from the national government, placing more power in the hands of the people. Radicals feared the formation of another strong central government, similar to the British government, which would favor the elite, strip people of their right to equal representation, and violate their freedom.

Ratify  –  To formally approve and accept a legal document, such as a constitution.

Sovereignty  –  Sovereignty means that an independent state has the power to govern its own affairs. A sovereign state maintains the power to govern its own affairs without interference from other states or other bodies of power.

Second Continental Congress  –  The Second Continental Congress met for the first time in Philadelphia in May of 1775, and continued to meet until the full ratification of the Articles of Confederation on March 1, 1781. This congress produced the Declaration of Independence, drafted the Articles of Confederation, and served as an unofficial national government, managing the war effort, finances and foreign affairs, while the Articles were debated by the states. It was succeeded by the Congress of the Confederation.


Benjamin Franklin  –  A printer by vocation, inventor, philosopher and author by hobby, Benjamin Franklin played many vital roles in establishing both the independence of the United States and in ensuring the success of the young nation. Elected as a delegate to the Albany Congress of 1754, his Albany Plan outlined the balance of power between local independence and colonial union, and has been said to be prophetic of the U.S. Constitution. He served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, was chosen for the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence, was sent as a diplomat to France to procure military assistance during the Revolution, and was appointed as one of three to negotiate the Treaty of Paris. Franklin also served as a delegate to the convention that produced the U.S. Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson  –  Known mostly as the author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson also served as an influential statesman of Virginia and as a diplomat to France. He contributed important legislation and ideology during the early years of the new nation. He strongly believed in the importance of legislation that limited the power of government and strengthened the rights of the people. Jefferson proposed and passed important legislation dictating the separation of church and state and was integral in both Virginia’s decision to cede its northwestern territory to Congress and in drafting the land ordinances that would serve to manage the land equitably.

John Dickinson  –  Serving as a delegate from Pennsylvania to the Second Continental Congress, John Dickinson became part of the committee assigned to author the first draft of the Articles of Confederation. Dickinson, who had extensive writing experience, was chosen as the chairman and the primary author of this document, although he had been one of the delegates who did not sign the Declaration of Independence. Favoring a strong central government similar to that of Great Britain, much of Dickinson’s draft was changed before ratification, although his insistence on a strong central government resurfaced later in his support of the U.S. Constitution.

Richard Henry Lee  –  An influential planter and statesman from Virginia, Richard Henry Lee proposed the resolution that led both to the formulation of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, once serving as its president, and was one of a committee of three to review the Articles of Confederation for completeness before it was sent to the states for ratification. He later served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and received credit for drafting the 10th Amendment, which guaranteed states’ rights.

Daniel Shays  –  A farmer from western Massachusetts and a former captain in the Continental Army, Daniel Shays staged a protest and led a rebellion against what he perceived to be unfair taxation and debt repayment legislation.

George Washington  –  The Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, this Virginia-born planter served a great symbolic role in early American history. He was keenly in favor of a strong national government, and exerted his influence toward that end when possible. He hosted the first successful interstate commerce meeting at his plantation home, Mount Vernon, and contributed tremendous prestige to the Constitutional Convention by agreeing to serve as one of the delegates from Virginia.


Annapolis Convention  –  Held in September 1786 at the request of Virginia, this meeting of the states aimed to improve the uniformity of commerce. Only twelve delegates came, and they proceeded to call a second meeting, to be held in May of 1787, for the purpose of revising the Articles.

Jay-Gardoqui talks  –  John Jay, as diplomat to Spain, attempted to negotiate for American access to trade along the Mississippi River. Threatened by Americans moving westward, the Spanish diplomat Diego de Gardoqui recommended instead that Spain would establish trade with eastern U.S. ports, assist in removing Great Britain from the Great Lakes and assist in combating the Barbary Pirates. Southern and Western delegates in Congress viewed with contempt this plan that seemed to sacrifice their interests to the commercial interests of the Northeast.

Maryland ratifies the Articles  –  Although the Articles of Confederation had been approved by 12 states by 1779, they could not go into effect until Maryland’s ratification on March 1, 1781.

Mount Vernon Conference  –  This name was applied to a meeting between Maryland and Virginia statesmen at George Washington’s Mount Vernon Plantation. Originally scheduled to meet at Alexandria to discuss free navigation of the Potomac and Pocomoke Rivers, the delegates ended up resolving far broader issues of trade and mutual policy between the two states.

Land Ordinance of 1784  –  Proposed by Thomas Jefferson just a month after Virginia officially handed over western lands to congress, this ordinance established the process by which new lands would be divided into states, the process for surveying and sale, and the qualifications of new states to enter into Congress. This ordinance set the precedent to prohibit any attempts to colonize newly ceded lands.

Northwest Ordinance  –  A revision of the earlier Land Ordinance of 1784, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 refined some of the earlier qualifications for statehood. It further provided that a certain amount of land had to be reserved for public education, and that slavery was to be prohibited in this territory north of the Ohio River.

Shays’ Rebellion  –  Daniel Shays organized farmers throughout New England to protest legislation that increased taxes and demanded immediate debt-repayment. When the state legislature refused to respond, Shays and his armed followers closed the courts in western Massachusetts in protest of foreclosed properties. The rebellion came to a head when Shays was defeated while trying to seize a federal arsenal of weapons in Springfield, Massachusetts, on January 25, 1787. This rebellion demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and convinced many states of the need for a stronger central government.

Treaty of Paris  –  This treaty, negotiated on behalf of the U.S. by Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Samuel Adams, formally acknowledged the independence of the thirteen American colonies, and set the boundaries of the new nation at the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Mississippi River in the west, Florida in the south, and Canada in the north.


As the first official document that defined the United States government, the Articles of Confederation both reflected the ideals and philosophies of the American Revolution and highlighted the practical difficulties of democratic government.

The idea of a union formed for mutual defense began in 1643 with the founding of the first colonial union, called the New England Confederation. Recognizing that a union would help the colonists to defend themselves against the threat of Indian attacks and French invasion, this confederation established the idea that unified strength was an effective power on the North American continent.

As the governments of the colonies evolved and established more power, they continued to rely on unions for mutual defense. At the beginning of the French and Indian War in 1754, additional colonies attended the Albany Congress for the purpose of forming a unified defense strategy against the French and Indians. The colonists learned an important lesson from this experience, and began to instinctively rely on the power of unions any time their rights were abused during the pre-Revolutionary era.

The governing body that eventually created the Articles of Confederation was based on this tradition of defensive unions, but was formed in a time of peace—not actually preparing for war. However, the Second Continental Congress, originally formed for the purpose of mutual defense of the thirteen colonies, suddenly found itself in 1776 waging a full-scale war and governing a nation.

Congress managed to successfully direct the Revolution effort and to prevent domestic anarchy by relying more on improvisation than on any codified system of laws. Consensus worked for the thirteen states when faced with the imposing task of defeating the British; however, when Congress approached the topic of drafting a constitution that would serve to direct the affairs of the nation, numerous controversies erupted over how to establish a balance of power between individual states and a national governing body. Despite all their experience in organizing unions for mutual defense, the representatives had no reliable source from which they could draft the plans for a new and democratic form of government.

The source of most of the controversies lay in that Americans held sharply contrasting interpretations of the implications of the American Revolution. Radicals believed that the purpose of the Revolution was to establish a government, unlike any other at the time, that placed power solidly in the hands of the people. Therefore, they interpreted the confederation to be like past unions, given power solely to provide for mutual defense. Sovereignty, they claimed, belonged close to the people in the hands of state governments, not in a strong central government. Conservatives, on the other hand, viewed the Revolution as an opportunity to remove control from a foreign elite and place it solidly in the hands of a centralized government in America. Like radicals, they believed in the importance of mutual defense, but wanted to extend the union’s power to be able to manage all affairs of the new nation.

The shape of the new government, as established by the Articles of Confederation was largely influenced by the radicals’ point of view. The Articles were submitted to the states for ratification in the midst of war with Great Britain. Most Americans greatly feared the possibility that their new American government would be as strong and as destructive to individual rights as the British one, and that the war would thus have been fought in vain. The government established and approved by the people in 1781, therefore, consisted of a national congress with extremely limited powers and thirteen independent state governments that held the balance of power.

The significance of the Articles of Confederation is that it provided enough of a structure for the nation to survive during those eight years, while the American people learned about the requirements to run an effective national government. The weaknesses inherent in the Articles of Confederation eventually provided the means for change.

In the midst of frustrating economic chaos and political confusion, individuals began to assert their own power against ineffective and unfair government created by the Articles. In Shays’ Rebellion, Massachusetts farmers rebelled against a state legislature that seemed no different than Parliament in its unwillingness to change tax regulations and debt- repayment laws. Respected leaders from many states met at the Annapolis Convention in 1786 to try to determine a uniform system of commerce amongst themselves in the absence of a national policy. In both cases, Americans had realized that their liberties were threatened when not protected by a strong enough central government.

When delegates of the states met to revise the Articles of Confederation at the Constitutional Convention in May of 1787, they had gathered enough experience about the intricacies of government to more clearly define what the next government of the nation should and would do. It would not abandon the ideas of the American Revolution by placing too much power in the hands of the central government, but it also would not allow numerous competing government systems to tear the union apart.

Once again, the concept of union had evolved. Having learned from the failures of the government created by the Articles of Confederation, the delegates at the Constitutional Convention created a government that not only provided mutual defense against outside threats, it also created a central government strong enough to reign in and withstand internal threats and represent unified national interests to the world.


1643: Formation of the New England Confederation Consisting of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven and Connecticut colonies, this was the first union formed for the purpose of mutual defense against the French and Indians and as a forum for inter-colonial disputes.

June, 1754: Formation of the Albany Congress With delegates representing Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania (including Delaware), Maryland, Virginia, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, this congress provided for unified negotiations with the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederation.

July 10, 1754: Publication of the Albany Plan of Union Drafted by Benjamin Franklin, this was the first document to detail a proposal of inter- colonial unity and to aim for a permanent union of American colonies.

1765: The Stamp Act Congress meets in New York City This congress developed a unified colonial strategy to appeal and protest the unfair legislation of Parliament. See more…

1774: Meeting of the First Continental Congress Meeting in Philadelphia, the First Continental Congress organized a unified colonial boycott, and agreed to meet again if their terms were not met.

1774: Presentation of the Galloway Plan to Congress This proposal for union included a plan to establish an American Parliament that would provide legislative authority over the colonies and empowered with veto power over the British Parliament in regards to colonial matters.

May, 1775: The Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia This congress met to discuss further unified colonial appeals, to plan protests and to manage the beginnings of military action against the British. See more…

January,1776: Publication of Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Benjamin Franklin drafts a plan of union that based representation in congress and contributions to the common treasury on the number of males in each state between sixteen and sixty years of age.

June 7, 1776: Richard Henry Lee proposes independence in Congress Lee proposes a resolution that calls for drafting a declaration of independence and a plan of government and confederation.

June 12, 1776: Committee appointed to draft Articles of Confederation Congress appoints a committee chaired by John Dickinson to draft the plan of confederation.

July 2, 1776: Draft of the Articles submitted to Congress John Dickinson’s draft of the Articles of Confederation is submitted to Congress for debate and revision.

July 4, 1776: U.S. declares independence Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence is published to the world.

November 15, 1777: Congress completes the Articles of Confederation The final version of the Articles of Confederationis adopted by Congress and submitted to the states for ratification.

July 9, 1778: Eight of the thirteen states officially ratify the Articles The delegations from New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and South Carolina sign and ratify the Articles of Confederation.

February 22, 1779: Delaware ratifies the Articles Delaware ratifies the Articles of Confederation, and Maryland is the only state yet to ratify. The confederation does not take effect until all states have ratified.

January 2, 1781: Virginia cession of land Virginia cedes a portion of its land west of the Appalachian Mountains to Congress.

March 1, 1781: Establishment of the U.S. Government Maryland ratifies the Articles of Confederation, formally establishing the first government of the United States.

October 17, 1781: Surrender at Yorktown British General Charles Cornwallis surrenders to the Continental Army at Yorktown, Virginia, ending the war between the United States and Great Britain.

1782: Establishment of the Bank of North America Founded by the Secretary of Finance, Robert Morris, this bank helped to stabilize the commerce of the United States.

March, 1783: Newburgh Mutiny The army stationed at Newburgh threatened mutiny because they had not received their pay and were only stopped by George Washington’s effective persuasion to remain loyal to the patriotic cause.

June, 1783: Congress forced from Philadelphia A mutinous group of Pennsylvania troops, demanding pay, forced Congress to leave Philadelphia. President John Dickinson refused the assistance of all on the state militia, as he feared they were not reliable. Congress retreated to Princeton.

September 3, 1783: Signing of Treaty of Paris The Treaty of Paris establishes the terms of peace between the United States and Great Britain.

March 1784: Acquisition of the Northwest Territory Congress officially acquires the land ceded by Virginia north and west of the Ohio River.

April 23,1784: Passage of the Land Ordinance Drafted by Thomas Jefferson and accepted by Congress, this ordinance is the first to establish the process to administer newly acquired lands.

March 25, 1785: Meeting of Mount Vernon Conference Representatives of Maryland and Virginia met at George Washington’s plantation to resolve conflicts over the navigation of the Potomac and Pocomoke Rivers.

September 11, 1786: Meeting of the Annapolis Convention New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia, meet to discuss uniform trade regulations, but agree to appeal to all states to meet again to discuss broader reforms.

January 25, 1787: Shays’ Rebellion Daniel Shays and other armed farmers from western Massachusetts are defeated in their attempt to conquer an arsenal of weapons in Springfield, Massachusetts.

May 25, 1787: First meeting of the Constitutional Convention Delegates from all states except Rhode Island meet in Philadelphia for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.

July 13, 1787: Passage of the Northwest Ordinance This serves as a revision of the earlier ordinance and establishes, amongst other things, that slavery is prohibited from the new region.

September 17, 1787: Draft of constitution submitted to the states The Constitutional Convention sends its draft of the U.S. Constitution to the states for ratification.



The representatives of the thirteen states agree to create a confederacy called the United States of America, in which each state maintains its own sovereignty and all rights to govern, except those rights specifically granted to Congress.

As these thirteen states enter into a firm “league of friendship” for the purpose of defending each other, there are standards that the states should follow to help maintain good relationships. Each state must recognize the legal proceedings and official records of every other state, and that the citizens of one state have the rights of citizenship in any state. Additionally, a state must help return runaway criminals to the state in which the crime was committed.

States have the right to select and send two to seven delegates to Congress each year. Each state has one vote in congress, and delegates can only serve for a period of three years in any interval of six years. Delegates have certain privileges while serving in Congress. They are guaranteed the right to freedom of speech and are immune from arrest for most petty crimes.

States are not allowed to conduct relationships with foreign nations without the permission of congress. They cannot wage war, negotiate peace, raise an army or navy, conduct diplomacy, or make an alliance with another state. However, they can make imposts on goods, as long as they do not interfere with foreign treaties. States must keep a local militia, and they may wage war if they need to quickly defend themselves.

During war, states have the right to appoint officers of colonel rank and below. Congress pays for war from a treasury that states contribute to relative to the value of land in their state.

Congress has the sole power to deal with foreign nations, including making war and peace, and to deal with Indian (Native American) affairs. Congress must maintain uniform standards of coins and measures, make the rules for the army and navy, and run the post office. Congress will help resolve interstate disputes only as a last resort, and has the sole right to hold trials for crimes committed at sea.

Congress can appoint a provisional Committee of the States to serve when Congress is not in session. Congress can appoint other committees made up of civilians to help run the nation, and a president who can serve for one year every interval of three years.

Congress determines the budget and will publish it regularly, along with the proceedings of its meetings. When Congress must request troops, it will do so relative to the number of white inhabitants in each state, and the states must provide those troops on the date indicated.

On the most important issues of foreign affairs, nine of thirteen delegates must agree.

If Canada chooses to join the United States, it will be admitted as an equal state.

Congress takes full responsibility for all debts from the American Revolution.

All states agree to follow the rules of the Articles and the decisions of Congress and to never violate the union.

Any changes to the Articles of Confederation must be agreed to in congress and approved by every state.

Summary-State Sovereignty

Articles 1-2

By signing the document, the delegates of each state agree to the form of government described in the Articles of Confederation and therefore commit their state to the permanent union of states that will be called the United States.

The form of government created by this document is called a confederacy, or a loose organization of independent states. Each state will maintain sovereignty, which means that the state maintains the power to run its own affairs. Any rights, privileges and powers that are not specifically given to the Congress by the Articles of Confederation are maintained by the state.


Where the balance of power would rest in the newly formed union—whether it would rest in the state governments or in a centralized national government—proved to be one of the most challenging and divisive issues that the Second Continental Congress faced. The debate between state power and central or national power continued to occupy politicians throughout the nation’s early history, and vestiges of it are found in today’s big government versus small government debate.

When Richard Henry Lee proposed independence and the establishment of a new government to replace the King and Parliament, the debate was largely theoretical. Did the central authority that previously rested in the hands of the King and Parliament get passed down directly to the Second Continental Congress? Or did the power to govern rest directly with the people protected by the authority in each independent state? Those who favored the argument for a strong central government were called conservatives, and feared that the absence of a strong central government would lead to anarchy in the states. Those who favored states’ rights were called radicals, and felt that simply replacing one strong central government with another defeated the purposes of the American Revolution.

The original draft of the Articles of Confederation was written by the conservative John Dickinson and described a confederation that placed a significant amount of power in the hands of the central government, or Congress. In this first draft, states were allowed to keep as many of their laws, rights and customs as they choose, and to have the sole authority to regulate their internal police, as long as this power did not interfere with the Articles. Congress would represent the supreme authority on any issue. This was quickly criticized by radicals in Congress for providing no distinct authority to the states separate from that of Congress and for giving states no protection against an all-powerful central government. By the time the articles were distributed for review by state legislatures, the radicals had insisted that the balance of power be shifted to favor the states over the central government. This shift was reflected in the wording of Article II.

The Second Continental Congress operated mostly as a strong central government without any legal authority before the Articles of Confederation, but radicals were unwilling to put that strength into written law. Not only had the Congress raised a military, appointed military leaders, requisitioned supplies and administered all war efforts, it had also tended to foreign diplomacy, establishing currency and a post office, and had even begun to establish administrative departments to manage certain areas of national government. The power of Congress to do these things during wartime was never questioned. But when it came time to write a constitution that would govern during times of peace, radicals could not see the necessity of having so much power concentrated in the hands of the central government.

This dislike of a centralized government was rooted in the radicals’ belief that the union of states was formed solely for the purpose of common defense against Great Britain. Radicals argued that the purpose of the Revolution was to form more democratic governments, by definition requiring a close relationship between the people and their government. They argued that a strong centralized government exerting its power over many thousands of people would simple cease to be democratic, because the authority would lie too far from the people. Let the states govern their own affairs, they said, and the liberties of the people are most likely to be protected. To radicals, the only purpose of the confederation was to provide a foundation for mutual defense and foreign policy should they be threatened by an outside power again. They interpreted the Articles of Confederation as a pact between thirteen separate states that agreed to delegate certain powers for specific purposes, not one that granted general powers to a central government.

After the American Revolution, many people feared the prospect of another strong central government that would simply replace the British government. This fear was reflected in the final draft of the articles, which not only strongly claimed that sovereignty rested with the state (in Article II), but also effectively stripped the congress of any effective powers whatsoever in the remaining articles of the document.

The ineffective and disunited governance that resulted between 1781 and 1789 proved to the people that they could effectively disempower the national government by placing many checks and controls on its power. However, it also demonstrated to most people that their rights and liberties would be threatened in the absence of a national government that could serve as a supreme authority over all of the states.

By successfully removing all significant powers from congress, the radicals won the first round of the nation versus state debate. However, a few years of experience in self-government convinced many that, in practice, the theory of basing power in the hands of the people did not work. By 1786, many who had been radicals would clamor for giving more effective power to the central government and to place sovereignty with the nation. As such, the spirit expressed by Dickinson’s original draft of the Articles of Confederation, which he could not persuade others to accept on purely theoretical terms, was later expressed in the U.S. Constitution.

Articles 3-4

Summary—Interstate Relations

Each of the thirteen states that make up the United States commit to a firm “friendship” with each of the other states. They are united for the purposes of defending themselves against military threats, protecting their independence, and ensuring the general well being of all of the states and good relationships between them. Each state commits to help any other state to defend itself against any attack on the basis of their religion, their right to self-government, their freedom to trade, or for any other reason.

To ensure friendly relationships and good business between people living in different states, any free person living in one state, not counting slaves, has the same rights as a free person living in any other state.

If a person charged as a criminal or traitor in one state runs away to another state, the government of the first state has the authority to bring the criminal back to the state in which the crime was committed.

Any official records, documents, trials and decisions made by the court system in one state will be recognized by each of the other states.


Delegates to congress expressed a lofty idealism when they talked about the “friendship” of the thirteen states and of the states’ willingness to work together for their mutual benefit and towards the common good. The reality of the situation was that each state jealously guarded its own power, had no qualms about usurping power from or abusing the power of less powerful states, and ruthlessly supported its own cause at the expense of the common good. The bonds of friendship, rather than being enforced by a structured and centralized government, faltered because of the unwillingness of states to focus on their role as part of a bigger nation.

The Articles of Confederation were worthless in enforcing good interstate relations because they did not endow Congress with the authority to regulate interstate trade or to intervene in questions of interstate disputes, except as a last resort. The Articles also made it too difficult for Congress to easily pass legislation beneficial to the common good. Furthermore, Congress itself was so plagued by poor interstate relations and low morale that it was often unable to address areas that did fall under its direct control.

The failure of a supreme authority to regulate interstate commerce became a problem because, although Congress was endowed with the sole authority to negotiate foreign treaties, it did not have the power to control trade between individual states and foreign countries. States were solely granted the right to levy imposts on foreign goods, and they freely interpreted this to mean goods from other countries as well as other states in the United States. States insisted on printing their own paper money and requiring it in kind for payment of tariffs of purchase of goods. Bordering states that shared the same rivers struggled to exert control by imposing competing tolls. In addition to a variety of different customs regulations and currencies, state governments sought commercial advantage over other states, and based their policies on what would bring their state the biggest rewards, not what was best for the common economic good.

These interstate trade wars developed because states with clear commercial advantages abused their power. The disadvantaged states without ports could not import goods directly into their state and had to rely on neighboring states with ports. These neighboring states often charged to transport goods either into or out of the state. The only recourse for the states without ports was to retaliate by enacting their own tariffs on imported goods. Therefore, the consumer was caught up in a confusing and costly interstate battle resulting from interstate jealousies and a system of commerce that lacked uniformity. Consumers, farmers, and merchants bore the brunt of these policies, but appeals for change accomplished nothing.

Committees of merchants organized to appeal for a more regulated system of commerce. Nationalist politicians did what they could to make improvements to the system. Alexander Hamilton tried in 1781, and again in 1783, to draft an amendment that granted Congress the right to levy and collect an impost. This would not only provide some regulation to the world of trade, but would also provide Congress with a much-needed source of revenue. Many states were surprisingly eager to relinquish their control of commerce in order to relieve some of the confusion, but it required unanimous approval before it could become law. Unfortunately, Rhode Island opposed both measures, insisting that this infringed upon the sovereignty of the states. The inability of Congress to make much needed change without a unanimous decision, not to mention their inability to regulate commerce, fueled interstate tension further. Rhode Island especially irked the majority of states for not graciously succumbing to the desires of the other twelve states.

Rhode Island again became the source of interstate frustration when it passed debt-repayment laws that required all creditors to accept the highly inflated and worthless Rhode Island currency. This attempt to quickly pay off its debt demonstrated a naïveté about the fine points of finance, and appalled commercial men in other states. It would have been better for Rhode Island’s line of credit had the state tried to pay off the actual value it owed over a longer period of time. Instead, creditors from other nations and other states were forced either to take full payment in paper currency, of a greatly diminished value, or give up their repayment altogether. Rhode Island established criminal penalties for refusing to accept its currency and removed the right to trial-by-jury in cases related to debt-collection. Acting solely in its own interest, Rhode Island jeopardized not only the United States’ line of credit with foreign creditors but also threatened to remove civil liberties. Without a strong central government to control the behavior of individual states, there was no recourse when an individual state acted against the general welfare of the United States.

The same lack of “friendship” between states existed between delegates to Congress as well. Sometimes openly hostile to delegates from other states, openly criticizing others in letters and other public forums, the delegates did not behave like friends, or even like polite acquaintances. A general lack of camaraderie plagued Congress in the form of low attendance and states refusing to compromise their own best interest. Congress was often unable to exert the few powers it did have to sooth interstate rivalries simply because of lack of a quorum. In other cases, Congress was unable to act objectively because it was so easily manipulated by powerful states. When appealed to by one state, Congress had to carefully weigh that state’s influence (especially financial) when deciding whether to intervene. For example, when Vermont, which had been formed by land taken from New York, appealed to Congress to be accepted as a new state, New York withheld its requisitioned funds to pressure Congress into deciding on its behalf. The “perpetual union of firm friendship” lacked both the friendship and the coercive power necessary to regulate interstate relations. Relying on the pure motives of states, motives that were in fact driven by self-interest and jealousy, destroyed the possibility of a firm league of friendship.

Ironically, one of the only attempts of self- regulation between two states actually succeeded in becoming a uniform policy and became the first step towards a revision of the Articles of Confederation. This self-regulation was also deemed technically illegal by the Articles, which did not allow states to contract treaties outside of the forum of Congress. Nevertheless, leaders from Maryland and Virginia agreed to meet in Alexandria to discuss a mutually agreed upon regulation of commerce on the Potomac and Pocomoke Rivers. As was typical of the time, the Virginia delegation did not get the message and failed to attend. When the Maryland delegates arrived with no reception, they contacted two of the Virginia delegates and persuaded them to go ahead with the meeting anyway, which they did at Mount Vernon. The results of the meeting went far beyond the original goals; not only did the delegates resolve the dispute relating to the two rivers, they also established a uniform policy of commerce and trade regulations in all areas of exchange between the two states. Additionally, their success inspired them to call a convention of all states interested in discussing issues of common commerce in Annapolis. This Annapolis Convention is what eventually led to the call for a Constitutional Convention in May 1787. Ironically, it seems that the states were eager to befriend each other in order to work towards their mutual interests, but somehow the Articles reinforced jealousies rather than effectively encouraging the friendship necessary to enact uniform policies towards the common good.


Article 5

Summary—Representation in Congress

Each state can decide how it wants to select its delegates, but it must do so once a year, prior to the annual meeting of Congress on the first Monday of November.

States can send between two and seven delegates to Congress. A delegate cannot serve for more than three years in every six-year period. A delegate cannot hold another position in the United States government for which he receives any kind of payment or benefit, either directly or indirectly.

Each state has one vote in Congress, irrespective of how many delegates are sent.

Delegates’ freedom of speech is protected while they are serving in Congress. Delegates may not be arrested or put in prison while they are in Congress, or traveling to and from, unless they have committed treason, a felony, or have been guilty of breach of the peace.


Article 5 strongly supports the sovereignty of states clause of Article 2. Instead of outlining a national system of elections to Congress, which would be more reflective of the overall population of the United States, the Articles of Confederation APATHY IS THE REAL VILLAIN OF HISTORY!

require that each state provide at least two delegates, regardless of the amount of land, population size, or wealth of that state.

Although John Dickinson’s original draft of the Articles of Confederation included equal representation in Congress regardless of state size, other conservatives were deeply troubled by the implications of this form of representation. This issue became another debate between the radicals on one side and the conservatives on the other. The radicals argued that since the government of the United States was a loose confederation of equal and sovereign states, they must be equally represented in that confederation. Furthermore, radicals insisted that Congress did not have the authority to determine how elections were to be carried out in the individual states, each of which had its own constitution and means for holding elections.

Conservatives, on the other hand, hoped for a strong centralized government and felt that only a system of “national” representation would effectively represent the people. In this form of representation, elections would be administered by Congress and would be the same in each state: the people would be represented by a number of delegates proportionate to the population in their state. This method of representation places sovereignty more firmly in the nation than the state, and was deeply opposed by radicals.

The evolution of Benjamin Franklin’s thinking on the topic of representation is interesting because it reflects the transition between a colonial mindset and a young national mindset. When Franklin drafted the Albany Plan of Union in 1754, he called for equal representation from each colony to that congress (two per colony). However, when he drafted the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in early 1776, he called for a system of representation in which delegates were chosen annually in proportion to their population of males between the age of sixteen and sixty (one delegate to every five thousand). Franklin clearly distinguished between the union created during the colonial period, which didn’t have much overall authority to begin with and could be a loose confederation, and the necessity for the young nation to place more authority in the hands of a central government.

Article 5 also established some precedents for our current national government. The years a delegate could serve were restricted (term limits), they had limited immunity from legal proceedings while Congress was in session, and their freedom of speech was guaranteed while in Congress.


Article 6

Summary—Powers denied to states

States are denied certain powers under the Articles of Confederation. States may not send ambassadors to foreign countries, receive foreign ambassadors, or make any kind of arrangement, meeting or treaty with any king, prince or state. No person or state may accept any gift, including titles of nobility, from a foreign state. Neither Congress nor any state can give people noble titles.

A state may not enter into any treaties or alliances with another state without the approval of Congress.

A state may not make imposts on trade that will interfere with the terms of foreign treaties made by Congress.

A state cannot maintain any warships, or other military forces (troops) during peacetime unless Congress has determined it necessary to defend that state, its trade or forts in that state. Each state must maintain a “well-regulated and disciplined” militia, and a sufficient amount of supplies for that militia.



While the focus of Article 6 is on the limitations of state power, it also reflects certain historical realities that faced the young nation, and addresses the threats, both internal and external, that the nation was vulnerable to in its early years.

One of the most important and agreed upon ideas in the Articles of Confederation was its anti- nobility sentiment. Colonists, even the most conservative, understood how a system of hereditary nobility would serve to sharpen class distinctions, limit economic and political freedom, and corrupt a democratic government. They wanted to break from the tradition of the British parliament, where the House of Lords, made up only of nobles, had clear advantages over the House of Commons, comprised of people elected from each region. Although many colonists still favored an “elite” group holding greater power than the masses, they preferred that the elite group be defined by actual property holdings and wealth, rather than by a title of nobility.

Another strongly held belief by most colonists was the importance of protecting the state, and therefore the people, through the establishment of a well-regulated militia. Based on the tradition of the minutemen, the militia clause recognizes the constant need of a state to be on guard against military threats and invasion. Although states could not raise armies and navies, they were required to have a group of soldiers prepared in case of threats from within or without. This would also protect the state governments against a strong national military.

During the time of the Articles of Confederation, the states faced many sources of potential invasion. The nations that had fought in the American Revolution and still occupied parts of North America were the most threatening. Great Britain, although agreeing to abandon the forts in the Great Lakes region, refused to leave. They therefore posed a military threat from the north (Canada) and the west. Not only were they able to amass troops on the northern and western borders of the United States if they chose, but they also maintained their trade posts in the Great Lakes Region and could provide Native American tribes with weapons to be used against the states.

Great Britain could also serve as an outside alliance for disgruntled states. When Ethan Allen formally declared Vermont independent from New York, Great Britain promised to recognize its independence if it would become an ally. Vermont tried to use this proposed alliance to force Congress to accept its independence at this time, but Great Britain lost interest in Vermont once the war ended. However, the potential for powerful outside alliances was there, and threatened the internal stability of the United States.

Spain, holding territory to the south and west of the United States also posed a threat. Although Spain had been an ally of the United States during the American Revolution, it feared the expansion of the United States west beyond the Mississippi. Spain tried to woo those westerners into Spanish citizenship in order to strengthen its hold on the Mississippi River region. In the Jay-Gardoqui talks, Spain attempted to block all American trade from the Mississippi River, in hopes of coercing American farmers living in the western regions of the United States to become Spanish citizens in order to sustain their livelihood.

Furthermore, most Native American tribes were allies of the British, and felt threatened by the American tendency to grab great amounts of western land for their ever-increasing population. Border states, especially to the South (Georgia, North Carolina), constantly feared the threat of a Native American attack or invasion. The qualification that states are not empowered to wage war, unless under imminent attack, refers to the very distinct possibility that a state would find itself under attack without a formal declaration of war, or enough time to ask for permission of Congress to defend itself.

A more remote fear of internal division is alluded to in the clause about states entering into alliances with each other. Those who drafted the Articles were well aware of the power of unity in opposing a governing force. They anticipated that states might become unhappy with the central government. In this light, the writers of the Articles attempted to eliminate the possibility that states could join in unity against the government. However, the wording is weak and emphasizes the inability of Congress to enforce its rulings. This clause implies that as long as states inform congress of their alliance, the alliance is okay. Even if Congress prohibited the alliance, how could it force the alliance to end?

The trade meeting between Maryland and Virginia that took place at Mount Vernon in 1786 is a perfect example of what was disallowed by the Articles of Confederation. Congress did nothing at all to stop this meeting or alliance, and when an additional meeting was scheduled at Annapolis, inviting all of the states into a commercial alliance, Congress still did nothing. Congress had good reason to perceive this alliance as a threat, since it served to undermine its authority by re-making the articles of Confederation. However, in its powerless position, Congress did nothing.

Article 6 is also significant in the way in which it expresses the relationship between Congress and the states with regard to commerce. States are not allowed to partake in any sort of foreign diplomacy or treaty making—that power is reserved for Congress. However, Congress is not granted the power to make imposts on foreign trade. Therefore, each state is allowed to determine its own imposts, as long as it doesn’t interfere with the terms of foreign treaties made by Congress.

The phrasing of the clause on imposts leaves a huge flexibility of interpretation, allowing states to determine their imposts. The allowance of such flexibility demonstrates the powerlessness of Congress when it came to taxes of any kind. All of the other clauses in this Article assert that a state may not do something (such as make war), without the approval of Congress. In the impost clause the necessary approval of Congress is noticeably missing because Congress does not possess any authority over imposts. Therefore, the judgment is left to the states, not to Congress, about the permissibility of each impost.

Article 6, in attempting to define the limitations of state powers, actually does more to indicate the threats facing the young nation and the powerless nature of Congress. Even the powers given exclusively to Congress, such as making war and peace, are transferable to a state when Congress approves. A weak Congress lacking the power of enforcement could have been powerless to stop a state that usurped the congressional power of making war. Fortunately, the only usurpation of power that it was unable to stop, the Mount Vernon Conference, ultimately resulted in a strengthening of national power.


Articles 7-8

Summary—War Preparation

When raising an army to defend the United States, each state legislature has the authority to name all colonels and lesser officers in any way they choose to lead the troops recruited from that state.

The common treasury will supply any money needed to pay for war or to defend the country, when allowed by Congress. Each state has the responsibility of contributing to the common treasury based on the relative value of all the land within that state. Congress will determine the method of surveying land and estimating the total value per state. The taxes to support the common treasury will be made and collected by each state legislature by a date decided by Congress.


Probably the most taboo topic throughout the duration of thAmerican Revolution was taxation. Because it served as the impetus that brought the colonists to declare their independence from Great Britain, “taxation without representation” was a rallying cry that few forgot when visualizing their ideal government.

Most agreed that taxation was necessary to support a stable government. However, they also believed that the power to tax should be in the hands of the government that represents the people. Since the radicals had successfully placed sovereignty solidly in the state governments, people accepted, in theory, the right of the state legislature to levy taxes. However, they outright rejected the possibility of a central government levying any sort of taxes whatsoever.

Since one of the primary purposes of the Confederation Congress was to provide for mutual defense, it also had to establish a financial means to support its purpose. Hamstrung without the power to tax, Congress relied on requisitions of money from each state. Powerless to enforce its requisitions, Congress and the administrators of finance often resorted to begging states to pay. While this served to substantially weaken the ability of Congress to carry out its few responsibilities, it also reflected the unresolved debate of how states should be taxed.

One of the most divisive debates that occurred in the ratification process of the Articles of Confederation was the means by which the amount of a state’s tax contribution would be determined. This issue was also closely linked to representation in congress and the requisitioning of troops. At issue was the means by which political and economic power would be measured. For the purposes of taxation, Congress had to decide whether labor or land was the best indicator of economic strength. This debate between land and labor faced head-on the issue of sectionalism and slavery.

Northern states had well-cultivated and productive land, but southern states had tremendous labor resources in the form of slavery. Southern states also held immense tracts of land, but they did not have the same productivity value of northern states because they were not as densely populated or cultivated. In order to protect its own best interests, states supported the means of taxation that required them to pay the least taxes.

Northern states argued that taxation should be based on the number of laborers in each state, including slaves, because only through labor is land turned into economic value. Southern states countered this argument by stating slaves were property, and unless Northern states agreed to count their horses and cows for the taxation purposes, slaves could not be fairly counted. Aside from this obviously derogatory statement about the nature of slavery, the southern point of view clearly demonstrates that they would count slaves if it was to their advantage for representation purposes, but not when it would take a large chunk out of their profit from slavery.

Southern states strongly argued that it was the value of property that determined the potential wealth of a state, because property was more permanent than laborers. The land argument put the burden of taxation on the Northerners, who obviously resented that they would have to shoulder the burden of debt while the lucrative southern industry of cash crops would continuously prosper. Congress retained the power to determine the value of land, and therefore determine the relative contribution of taxes from each state. However, without the power to enforce the collection of taxes, which was a sole power of the state, Congressional finances became a large and problematic issue under the Articles of Confederation.

Article 9

Summary—Powers of Congress

Only Congress has the right to make peace and make war (except in those cases described in Article 6), to send and receive ambassadors, and to make treaties and alliances with foreign nations. Congress also has the exclusive right to give permission to private ships to attack enemy ships, and to oversee trials related to crimes on the sea.

Congress will help resolve conflicts between states relating to boundaries, jurisdiction and other issues, but only as a last resort.

Other powers of Congress include the right to determine how much precious metal is in each coin, and the value of coins made by them or any state. Congress determines the standard of weights and measures. Congress has authority over trade and other affairs involving Indians, as long as the Indians are not residents of any of the states and that Congress does not infringe on the states’ rights by getting involved. Congress establishes the post offices in each state, and can charge postage on items handled by the post office to help pay expenses. Congress appoints all officers of the army except regimental officers appointed by states, commissions all officers that serve in the army or navy, makes the rules to regulate the army and navy, and has the sole power to direct the army and navy.

The Congress has the authority to create a committee called the Committee of the States that serves in place of Congress when Congress is not in session. The Committee is made up of one delegate from each state. The Congress can also appoint other committees and civil officers as needed to manage the affairs of the United States. Congress can appoint a president, but he may only serve for one year every interval of three years. Congress has the authority to determine how much money is needed to run the United States, to spend the necessary amounts, and to borrow money on the credit of the United States. Every six months, a finance report will be published for all the states. The Congress has the right to build the army and navy, deciding how many forces are needed and requesting the amount from each state, proportional to the number of white inhabitants in that state. Once the request for troops is made, the state has the responsibility to appoint the regimental officers, organize and equip the soldiers, and march to the designated place at the time requested by Congress.

In order for Congress to act on the specifically listed powers above, nine of the thirteen states must agree. Issues of any other type, except for the request to adjourn from day to day, must be decided by the majority of states.

Congress has the power to stop a session of Congress or move it to any other place in the United States, but Congress cannot be out of session for more than six months at a time. Each month, Congress will publish their proceedings, unless a matter of security requires secrecy. These proceedings will include the voting patterns of each delegate if it is recorded by request of a delegate, and each delegate may get a copy of the proceedings to present to the state legislature.


What seems at first glance to be a lengthy list of powers granted to Congress under the Articles of Confederation was in actuality little more than a grant of limited powers necessary for the mutual defense of the United States. The Articles did not grant Congress the powers necessary for the effective governance of the United States.

In Article 9, the debate over the strength of the state versus the nation is articulated in a detailed list of precisely which powers Congress does and does not have. Although granted with the sole power to act in affairs of an international nature, Congress holds little authority over the day-to-day management of a nation. The radicals wanted it that way, inserting as many checks against strong governmental power as they could.

The most glaring deficiency of power is that the Congress served only a legislative role, and only in a narrowly defined area. Evolving out of a congress that united solely for the purpose of winning a war, the final draft of the Articles of Confederation did not recognize the need for a more expansive central government.

The only power of taxation belonging to Congress came in the form of postage, the revenue of which could solely be used to support the post office. Congress only possessed judicial power in cases involving felonies and piracy on the high seas and in cases related to the regulations it established for the army and the navy. The Articles imply that Congress had the authority to judge matters related to the boundaries of states or their jurisdiction, but only as a last resort. And, Congress lacked the executive power to enforce such decisions. Even if Congress were to rule in matters of interstate conflict, it would be up to the states to abide by that ruling.

Closely related to boundary disputes, but conspicuously absent from the Articles of Confederation, is whether Congress had the authority to acquire and administer land claimed by multiple parties. As the single most divisive issue facing the Congress when they drafted the Articles, it also served to delay Maryland’s ratification, thereby delaying the Articles being put into effect, by four years.

At issue was a conflict between “landed” states, whose original charters granted them land west of the Appalachian Mountains (and in some cases to the Pacific Ocean), and the “landless” states, whose boundaries were clearly defined and finite. The situation was made even more complicated by the Proclamation of 1763, in which King George III dictated that land west of the Appalachian Mountains was off-limits to American settlers even if it was included in their colonial charters. Private speculators and corporations took advantage of this no-man’s land to purchase property directly from Native Americans, banking on the fact that when the area was opened up, they would already own huge stakes of it.

The declaration of war complicated things further. Did the declaration of war return land to each state as originally chartered? Did the declaration of war automatically endow Congress, as the successor to the British king, with authority over the land referred to in the Proclamation of 1763? The “landless” states believed that the land belonged to Congress, and further bolstered their argument by claiming that disputed land should be shared by all the states. The “landed” states, which also happened to favor state sovereignty, argued that the declaration of war meant that each state returned to the sovereignty, rights, and privileges as granted in its original colonial charter. In other words, the “landed” states claimed the land as legally theirs.

The “landless” states had a variety of concerns regarding this situation. Primarily, they were concerned that influential speculators living within their states would lose the land they had purchased from Native Americans before the war. Additionally, Congress decided to allow soldiers to be compensated with land instead of cash, and “landless” states did not have the excessive land to give that states like Virginia and North Carolina did. This unfair economic advantage threatened the economic future of the “landless” states as well.

Fiercely jealous of the income potential of the “landed” states, “landless” states frequently argued that they would be swallowed up by their more powerful neighbors. “Landed” states could not only gain an economic advantage from the land, but with a broader base of income to draw revenue from, they could also use lower taxes to entice residents away from the “landless” states. The “landless” states would be left in an unfair position of being economically disadvantaged, and would be forced into a perpetual cycle of levying higher taxes on a increasingly smaller population until they went broke.

States like Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey claimed that Congress had to resolve the competing claims over western lands as part of the Articles of Confederation. Congress strongly resisted doing so, and individual “landed” states proceeded to deal with the land as though it belonged to them. Virginia even went so far as to hold trials to determine if the claims of speculation companies were legal. In all cases, Virginia determined that the land was unlawfully sold and purchased, and that any claims but those authorized by Virginia were worthless.

Finding no remedy in the Articles, Maryland withheld its signature in protest. Although this concerned the other states, the “landed states” still refused to give up their land to Congress. Instead, the solution was born out of military necessity. When the southern states began to feel the power of the British invasion late in the war, a French diplomat threatened to remove the protection of the French navy from Maryland’s seas if Maryland did not sign the Articles. Meanwhile, some Virginians began to see that it would be more of a burden, and potentially bad for democracy, to have to govern over too much land. Around the same time as Maryland signed the Articles, Virginia ceded its land north of the Ohio River to Congress.

The Virginia cession of land is significant in that it allowed Congress to pass the Land Ordinance of 1784 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, both providing a process for the fair and equal entry of new states to the union. The cession also partially increased congressional authority in the acquisition of new lands. In conjunction with the clause relating to congressional jurisdiction over Native American tribes (who did not live in one of the states), Congress gained almost sole authority over land and issues west of the Appalachian Mountains.

However advantageous this authority was to new American settlers on this western land, it severely limited the rights of Native Americans. Native American tribes, although many lived within the boundaries of the United States, were defined and classified as “foreign nations.” This precedent continued throughout U.S. history, as Native Americans were continually denied citizenship and inclusion in the U.S. Government. Having the authority to deal with “Indian Affairs,” it is a shame that Congress did not make better use of it.

Other precedents were established in Article 9 as well. The Articles provide for a president to be elected from amongst the delegates in Congress. Although this president is not endowed with any executive authority, he is limited in the number of terms he may serve. Furthermore, the practice of publicly communicating both the proceedings of Congress (including voting records), and the financial state of the union were good democratic policies and precedents because they made Congress accountable to the people who elected them.

Although the western land issue was one of the most controversial issues relating to the Articles of Confederation, Article 9 also included the outcome of the controversy relating to the requisitioning of troops. The Articles dictate that troops will be requisitioned in proportion to the total number of white inhabitants of each state. Non-slave states opposed this as unfair because while white males in slave states went off to war, their slaves could continue to work on the plantations. In contrast, when white males in non- slave states went off to war, the productivity of their farms would suffer due to the loss of the chief laborer. This issue was related to issues of representation in Congress and the requisition of funds as discussed in other articles.

Within Article 9 is perhaps one of the biggest stumbling blocks that Congress experienced in trying to run the daily affairs of the government. The Articles dictate that in most matters over which Congress has authority, nine of the thirteen states must agree to any particular action. This extremely high percentage made it difficult for Congress to act or pass legislation; the problem was further complicated by the Congress’ frequent inability to reach a quorum (mandatory minimum attendance) because of low attendance.

Despite the lengthy description of powers in Article 9, Congress was actually quite weak. It was a political body crippled by an inability to execute its laws, hemmed in by a limited range of authority, impeded by the absence of delegates, and trapped without the necessary unanimity to extend its legislative reach to matters beyond providing for the mutual defense.


Article 10

Summary—The Committee of the States

When Congress is not in session, a committee called the Committee of the States has the full authority to act in its place, and take on additional powers as necessary if nine of the states agree. However, the Committee of the States can never adopt any powers that specifically require the consent of nine states while Congress is in session.


Under John Dickinson’s draft of the Articles of Confederation, this body as called the Council of State, and was endowed with permanent bureaucratic and executive control over a variety of matters. It was changed to the Committee of the States and vested with minimal powers to sufficient only to simply manage the affairs under the authority of Congress when Congress was not in session.

Dickinson’s Council would have been in charge of any matter agreed upon by nine of thirteen states, and was probably inspired by the bureaucratic committees that had existed during the war to help with administrative duties. Dickinson’s Council could have been empowered to administer matters of commerce, trade, education, or any other area that Congress deemed appropriate. However, radicals viewed this vague extension of congressional authority as threatening to the state’s sovereignty.

Therefore, the Committee of the States, as described in the final draft of the Articles, had even stricter restrictions placed on it than Congress. The Committee could never make war or peace, could never coin or regulate money, and could never appoint the military commanders. In their zeal to protect themselves from centralized power falling into the hands of a body not directly controlled by the states, the radicals also stripped the national government of the only semblance of executive authority it had.

Under the guise of managing matters that fell under the authority of Congress, bureaucratic committees operated both during and after the war. Originally, delegates to Congress were required to sit on committees. Over time, this policy evolved toward bureaucracy, first to the establishment of committees or boards that included appointed outsiders, and then to the appointment of a non-delegate as single head of each department. This secretary system outlasted the Continental Congress, and the Confederation Congress appointed a Secretary of War and Foreign Affairs, a Secretary of the Post Office, and a Secretary of Finance.

The Committee of the States met only once during the summer of 1784 and suffered the same low attendance as Congress. It never reached its required quorum to accomplish any of the administrative tasks assigned to it.


Article 11


If Canada chooses to declare its independence and agrees to the terms of the Articles of Confederation, it can join the union and become a fully sovereign state like the other thirteen states. This offer does not include any other colony but Canada, unless nine states agree to extend this offer to another colony.


Establishing both the means by which a new state could enter the “union” on equal footing, and an attempt for military security, Article 11 specifically targets one issue in a way that no other article does.

Annexing Canada and formally absorbing it into the folds of the United States would have increased the power of the U.S. tremendously. The inclusion of Canada in the union would significantly increase the U.S. resources of land, people, types of industry, and available ports. It would increase the tax base of Congress as well as contribute its valuable resources to the overall economic good of the U.S. Furthermore, the annexation of Canada would help to significantly eliminate the biggest threat to American Independence: the presence of Great Britain on the North American continent.

If Canada had overthrown British rule in the 1780s and joined the United States as a sovereign state, the British would have had no further holdings of land in North America. However, after the war, the British continued to violate the Treaty of Paris by maintaining forts in the western territory of the United States. The British controlled the Great Lakes, which bordered the U.S. and Canada and the St. Lawrence River, thereby giving them powerful control over trade in the interior of North America. The United States aimed to eliminate the presence of as many of its competitors as possible. Unfortunately, Canada had no interest in joining the United States and remained a British colony. The British presence north and west of the United States continued to be a problem, and eventually led to the War of 1812.

What this Article did accomplish, however, was to establish the precedent by which new states would be absorbed into the union. With this precedent, rather than representing a governing body with fixed limits, the United States would be able to expand and absorb sovereign states on an equal basis, instead of as colonies. This idea was later put into practice in Thomas Jefferson’s Land Ordinance of 1784, which provided new states with the same right to self-governance and representation in congress as those enjoyed by older states.

Article 12

Summary—Debts of Congress

The United States takes full financial responsibility for all the debts accrued and money borrowed under the authority of the Second Continental Congress during the American Revolution. The United States solemnly pledges to repay all these debts.


In an attempt to maintain the good credit of the United States in the eyes of foreign nations and creditors, the Confederation Congress guaranteed that all debts contracted by the Continental Congress would be repaid. However, this commitment to repay debts is not matched in the Articles by any articulated means of repayment.

Other than the taxes that the states were supposed to supply, Congress had no independent source of revenue with which to repay its creditors. Because many individual states had their own debts from the war, they were typically more inclined to pay those first before contributing to repayment of the national debt. These issues were compounded by the fact that each state printed its own paper money and established its own set of commerce regulations. Furthermore, inflation raged out of control in both the national and state currencies.

Given the limited range of authority in matters of finance, it is amazing that the U.S. Congress managed to stay financially afloat at all. Much of this could be contributed to the abilities of the first Secretary of Finance, Robert Morris, who tried to work within the confines of the system as much as possible. In 1782, he established the Bank of North America. Although this was suspected by some to be an illegal extension of the authority of Congress, it passed Congress and greatly assisted in financial stability. However, his attempts, along with Alexander Hamilton, to pass an amendment empowering Congress to collect a 5% impost failed in both 1781 and 1783.

Without an established source of revenue, Congress also could not pay the soldiers in the Continental Army. This moved troops close to mutiny on two separate occasions. At Newburgh in March of 1783, troops protesting their lack of pay came close to mutiny until George Washington intervened. In Philadelphia in June 1783, another group of mutinous troops demanding pay forced Congress to retreat to Princeton. During this year, Robert Morris resigned from the position, haunted by accusations of corrupt politics and inability to perform his job due to the limitations of Congress.

The issue of debt repayment deeply worried individual states as well. Massachusetts levied high taxes and imposed strict regulations about debt repayment after the war. In 1787, these taxation methods resulted in an armed protest of Massachusetts farmers, led by Daniel Shays, a former captain in the Continental Army. The Massachusetts legislature’s unyielding attempts to immediately repay its debts abused the rights of citizens in much the same way as the British Parliament had a decade earlier: the Massachusetts farmers rallied under the same cry as the American Revolutionaries, “no taxation without representation,” and relied on similar military tactics.

When the legislature failed to respond to their petitions for change, Shays and his followers closed the courts and attempted to capture a federal arsenal of weapons in Springfield, MA. Referred to as Shays’ Rebellion, this group of farmers, although defeated by the local militia, proved to many that issues of taxation would continue to stir up internal conflict unless managed by a strong national government. Reactions to Shays’ Rebellion largely propelled politicians to favor a strengthening of the national government and encouraged their participation in the Constitutional Convention of 1787.


Article 13 and Conclusion

Summary—Pledge of Perpetual Union

Each state must accept and agree to follow the decisions of the United States in Congress assembled. The states must follow all of the rules as stated in the Articles of Confederation. The union of states is meant to last forever. No alterations can be made to the Articles without the agreement of Congress and the confirmation by each of the state legislatures.

Each of the delegates that sign this document has the power to commit the state that they represent to all of the Articles and their specific contents. The people of each state will agree to follow the rulings of Congress on all matters they discuss, and each of the states agrees to never violate the union. We have signed this as members of Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 9, 1778, the third year of American Independence.


Article 13 and the conclusion provide the means by which the Articles will be enforced and establishes the process for amendment to the Articles of Confederation.

The authority of the government established by the Articles rests in the pledge of all of the delegates to respect the union of thirteen states forever. This forces each individual state to rely on the honor of each of the other states to fulfill their mutual commitments. This reflects a notion similar to the “friendship” promise of Article 2, which had already been demonstrated to be ineffective.

The farther removed the states felt from the threat of war, the less they cared about honoring their pledge to abide by the Articles. In the absence of a strong and coercive power to force states into compliance, states failed to send delegates to Congress, were delinquent on contributions to the general treasury, negligent regarding the matters of foreign commerce, and eager to take power into their own hands. When the need for mutual defense was removed, there seemed to be little need for a central government whose authorization solely covered things related to the common defense.

The significance of this portion of the Articles of Confederation lies notonly in demonstrating the weakness of the government from 1781-1789, but also because it provided the means through which the Articles could be revised and the U.S. Constitution could be formed.

Although this Article states that the union cannot be violated by any state, it does allow for amendment to the Articles through agreement in Congress and approval by each of the state legislatures. The convention of all states, except for Rhode Island, in Philadelphia in May 1787, met under this guise to “amend” the Articles, not replace them. When the new and radically different document was adopted by this convention, it had to be ratified by all of the states before it took effect.

It is questionable whether this transition between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution was legal at all. The Articles stated that Congress had to agree to amendments, and the convention was not Congress. However, given the weakness of the Congress and the strength of the states, it would have been futile to try to stop it. Plus, Congress, more than any other group, probably understood the difficulties inherent in a powerless central government, and therefore welcomed the chance for increased powers after being so long held captive by the supreme sovereignty of the states.

The transition from Articles to constitution was somewhat in the spirit of Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence, which stated that a people have a right to overthrow a government that does not protect its fundamental rights. This time, however, the people did not demand a more democratic government that put sovereignty solely in the state, but clamored for a stronger central government that had a better chance of protecting their property from the chaos of too many competing state governments.

For the answers to the above problems of our government can be found on the link below



I would like to point out that Anna has left enough evidence in her articles to convince an absolute idiot she is far and away more intelligent than the whole damn mess of thieves in D.C. and is as trustworthy as any human can be. Please for your own sake, read all of her articles and help reform our original form of government.

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06 29 2020 Summarized




By Anna Von Reitz

Now that you “woke up” and declared and recorded your political status as an American State National or American State Citizen, it’s time to wake up to other Fun Facts as well.

For example, there are supposed to be three (3) Federal Subcontractors supplying the services of the Federal Government — (1) an American Federal Subcontractor doing business as the States of America Confederation (which has been missing in action since 1865); (2) a British Territorial Subcontractor that is doing business “in our names” as “the” United States of America; and (3) a Papist Holy Roman Empire Subcontractor doing business “in our name” as “the” United States.

Yes, Virginia, there are (supposed to be)  “three branches” of the Federal Government– but that fact has nothing to do with the “executive, legislative, and judicial branches” within these governmental organizations.

What isn’t so obvious is that the two remaining foreign Federal Subcontractors are both under the direction of the Pope.  The British Territorial Subcontractor is under the law of the British Commonwealth, and the Commonwealth is managed by the Queen acting for the Pope.

The remaining two Federal Subcontractors are Foreign and always have been, and both are directly or indirectly under the control of the Pope, and all those who are working for them in any capacity are Foreign Agents.

This includes not only the members of “the” US Congress, but their franchise employees operating the “State of State” governments around the country, and their agency employees at the Federal level — FBI, FEMA, CIA, etc.— they are all undeclared Foreign Agents on our shores, and always have been.

See the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act and understand that every “Federal” Employee, including those operating the “federated” States of States and Counties, are all Foreign Agents with respect to us.

They have their own little world and jurisdiction and separate government and are “immune” to our laws — except for the pertinent Constitution, while we, for our part, are forever immune from them and their system.  See Amendment XI.

Using these undisclosed facts and relationships to his advantage, the Pope could hide behind the “governmental services corporations” he hired and put in place as “storefronts”— while manipulating everything and everyone behind the scenes.

That is no longer possible.

If the Federal Government is mismanaged, misdirected, or misinformed, we know exactly who to blame for it.  The Queen gets her share of the profits from embezzling and other crimes against us, but on the back end of it, as a loyal employee of the Pope.

So, it’s the pope responsible for this mess and only secondarily  the`Queen.

Though the Perps try to obfuscate this next part, we don’t have any contracts with the “direct service providers” they hired.

Our contracts are established in our role as Principals and our contracts are directly with the Pope, the Queen, and the Lord Mayor of London.  We don’t have a contract with these failed and bankrupt corporations that they put in place to act as shields and storefronts for them.

The situation is analogous to this — I hire Tom to make my Saturday bank deposits for me, so that I can enjoy the weekends off.  Tom decides he wants a weekend off, and without telling me, hires his Cousin Amos to do his job for him. So he hands my bank deposit to Amos, and Amos runs off with it.

Who is to blame for this?  Well, Amos is a crook, and we all know that.  But who is accountable to me?   Tom is accountable to me.

So if the Pope hires the British Crown Corporation to make my bank deposit and they run away with my money, guess what?

My issue is with the Pope, and only secondarily with the BCC.

It’s the same way in all respects and all the way down the line.  If the Pope’s Municipal Government hires a bunch of Alphabet Soup Agency Subcontractors, and those Subcontractors misbehave and steal my deposit, who is accountable to me?

Again, my issue and yours, is with the Pope, and only secondarily with “the” UNITED STATES, INC. and in a tertiary sense, the FBI or IRS or BATF.

Our issue does not change as a result of the bankruptcy—solvency or insolvency— of these storefront organizations.  Our beef remains with the Pope. He’s the one who has contracts with these entities, not us.

They are his “Cousin Amos”, and in the case of the Federal Agencies, his “Cousin Sue”, too.

Keeping his “Cousins” in line and restoring our purloined property, is his problem, not ours.  As a foreign government, we don’t intend to make it our problem, either.

Francis and Benedict, both, are on the hot seat for all of this, and secondarily, all their Minions, the Queen, the Lord Mayor, “the” British Territorial United States, and “the” Municipal United States, and all their Subcontractors and Franchisees and Officers, including the State of State Governors and the Agencies, are responsible for their criminal acts and breaches of trust committed on our land and soil.

Cousin Sue may have done the dirt and hid the money, but Cousin Amos opened the backdoor for her to get into the house, and at the end of the day, the fact remains that my contract is with the Pope.

If our people are being seized upon and enslaved under a bizarre illegal and immoral and unlawful racketeering scheme by Cousin Amos, that’s Francis’s problem, too.

The Pope’s Municipal Government has been trying to foment a race war, based on Cousin Amos’ crimes.

They think that they can cause the problem, misdirect our attention from the fact that white people have been enslaved “in the land of the free”  in the exact same way as black people, and somehow skate out of being culpable for all of this.

Fat chance.

There’s not going to be a “civil war” here.  Our actual government, which is not always in session, has been called into session.  We’ve told our erstwhile Subcontractors that we are at peace and that they are not allowed to conduct any kind of war on our shores.

We have observed to the Pope that as he controls both sides of any such conflict, he is responsible for any disservice.  We won’t be paying him to stage any wars on our shores, Municipal, Territorial, or otherwise.

He will be identified as a diabolical schemer and anything but a Christian, if he doesn’t put on his Size 11 police brogues and deal with Cousin Amos and Cousin Sue and honor his contracts with us.

Our contracts are the respective Constitutions — one each.

The Constitution of the United States of America as ratified by the States of the Union applies to the British Territorial Government and all its Personnel.

The Constitution of the United States as ratified by the States of the Union applies to the Municipal United States Government and all its PERSONNEL.

Now that our State Assemblies have been called into Session and populated by people properly identifying themselves as American State Citizens, there can be no “mistaking” of the circumstance or our identity as the Principals owed performance of these venerable contracts, down to the last jot.

If there continues to be any “misunderstanding” of these facts by Cousin Sue, aka, the Alphabet Soup Agencies, or by Cousin Amos (aka the Municipal Government) or Cousin Alphonse (aka the Territorial Government) — guess who is responsible for giving the orders and sorting it out?

We, for our part, demand peace on our shores, the return of our purloined assets, and scrupulous adherence to the Constitutions owed to the American States and People by the Pope and his Subcontractors.  All of them, including the Subcontractors of the Subcontractors.

That includes the end of phony “live exercises” and media propaganda related to the ongoing Covid-19 False Flag on our shores and the correction of all State of State Governor franchisees, and the correction of all Alphabet Soup Agency Subcontractors, telling them to stand down and mind their own business. Obey their respective Constitutions.

Stop meddling in their Employer’s lives and affairs. Stop imposing their rules, regulations, codes, statutory laws and other internal corporate “laws” on their Employers.  Their Employers are law-abiding, foreign to them, and living in their own country, thank you.

It is the absolute obligation of the Pope to return our people and our property to us, unharmed and unencumbered, to keep the peace here and abroad, and to honor his contracts with our States and People in all respects.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com



Good day;


At the risk of bothering my subscribers with more email I finally decided to contact those I was able to save out of 2,600 and request they send me an email that says; Yes I want to subscribe to anationbeguiled.com.

I will then keep a document with your reply in it and any time you wish to unsubscribe just drop me an email requesting such. With the hundreds of emails I get every day, the last thing I want to do is make people mad. I do however, believe that every red blooded American should study Anna Von Reitz’s articles until you are blue in the face.

It is no longer a secret that we are being ruled by a series of corporations and the intellectually DOMIMATE filthy rich. Voting just proves our lack of knowledge. At the very least, I strongly suggest that everyone reads all of Anna’s jural  assembly articles which you will find  at the link below.


You’re Friend,

James P. Harvey aka Olddog





Becoming furious and staying that way over the last week damn near gave me a heart attack. The only solution to get my subscribers list back is having them email- anationbeguiled@fastmail.com and submitting their name and email address. And if anyone ever tells you MailChimp is a great company, please send them to a psychiatrist.

I would consider it a great honor if you readers would re-subscribe to me directly or at least make time to go to the site for the latest articles. Past computer problems is why I do not have a list of my subscribers. Please do not click on the Olddog Logo, as your records go to mail Chimp and not me. You might also Pray every day for the safety of Anna Von Reitz, as she is risking her life in her efforts to save America.

06 27 2020 Discussion Regarding Kim Possible and The Trust



By Anna Von Reitz

There is no valid trust involved in any of this entire business, a fact that Herr XXXX knows and which Kim, obviously, does not.

So he wisely keeps his mouth shut and let’s those who will be deceived, be deceived—-under the tenets of Roman Civil Law—- where all this BS began and where it also must end.

It may interest everyone to know that the Latin root word for “trust” means “to murder, the slaughter”.

Have they not seized upon the assets in this “trust” as thieves, without the purported “donors” knowledge or permission?  Have they not then proceeded to murder the victims on paper so as to disable their Persons and block them from accessing their own assets?

Yes and yes.

There can be no “possible” good to come out of this by allowing the perpetrators or anyone they assigned to keep control of the assets they thus purloined.

The assets belong to the victim-donors and to them must the assets return, by simple Operation of Law.

They constructed this trust under Roman Civil Law and it is bound by the law under which it is formed.  As a thing is bound, so it is unbound.

Under Roman Civil Law it is acceptable to lie and cheat and steal so long as you can get away with it—- but once discovered, fraud vitiates everything.  Once discovered, in this case, the trust in question must be liquidated— not handed off to an Assign chosen by the Perpetrators of these crimes.

Kim may be an innocent Third Party, a Good Woman or not; the point is that the Perpetrators of this outrageous crime have no right to further control the liquidation of this phony “trust” directly or indirectly.

It all belongs to the purported Donors and it is up to us to bring forward a plan to return the trust to the victims of this unholy scheme.

We have done so — The New Earth Union, globally, and the restoration of the American Government in the United States.

This is a firm good plan that guarantees the individual rights and property assets of every living man or woman on Earth.

Nothing that any “Trustee” or Assign like Kim can offer stands against the simple fact that the assets belong to the Donors and must go back to them and be under their control.

No doubt Kim has been a “donor” too and should have her part like everyone else, but any idea that liquidating the trust means creating a One Woman mega fortune to do with as she pleases needs to be recognized as an offer to participate in yet another stupendous fraud made by the Perpetrators of this entire circumstance.

To which we return an offer to follow the ancient law of Rome which applies to this “trust” and which mandates its liquidation and the return of the assets to the control of the donors and donor-beneficiaries.

The Presumed Donors must come up with a plan, and we have done so.

That Plan is The New Earth Union, globally, and the restoration of the American Government in the United States.  All other national governments have the similar opportunity to responsibly rearrange their business affairs and remember the actual purpose of government, which is not to make money.

The actual purpose of a government is to protect the people and their assets with the least interference in their affairs.  You may judge for yourselves the failure of the Corporatist Model.

The essence of this trust liquidation requires several separate functions: (1) to return the purloined property assets free and clear of debt or encumbrance, so that people are not further harmed; (2) provide for the government and public functions from the remainder, including infrastructure improvements; (3) provide for long-term relief from taxation of all kinds; (4) provide ongoing relief and institutional support for health and education; (5) establishment of competent and well-regulated means of trade, including lawful securities, free trade markets, and merchant banks; (6) establish pre-paid credit accounts for individual discharge of municipal debt; (7) establish basic income stipends to begin paying back profits directly to individuals and families to enhance their quality of life; (8) establish individual investment accounts to be blocked and managed by the individual people as a nest-egg payable upon their retirement.

The accomplishment of these goals, and a good many more, may easily be met by disbursement and/or redeployment of principal and remainder-man trust assets.

Such a solution invites everyone to participate, and not just an elite group of insiders divvying things up in a back room —- again.  And it provides direct and substantial remedy and relief to the victims of this scheme, which is or should be, the primary aim.

I have been accused of wanting to be Queen, when in fact my opposition to Kim or anyone else acting in such a capacity, is well-documented and recorded.  A Fiduciary is not a Queen.  A Fiduciary is a responsible business manager.  That is all I have ever claimed to be.

What I wish to see is the return of the purloined trust assets and the benefit thereof returned to those who have been harmed by this monstrous long-term fraud. Beyond that, I wish for the Earth to be restored and Mankind as a whole to be empowered by Reason and Goodwill.  I see no reason why all these simple requirements should not be fulfilled.

As a final note — Lawful Assets can only be possessed by Lawful Persons.

Actual and factual assets and certificated securities do not belong to the commercial banks and brokerages and other commercial corporations  that have benefited from the Special Deposits left in their custodial care, and it is  self-interested to claim otherwise.

Whatever concerns the banks have about the Depositors causing havoc need to be assuaged by the realization that the Depositors are not fools and stand to gain nothing by causing such a disruption.

Everyone concerned needs to additionally realize that continued obstruction by the banks and the commercial courts can only result in these institutions facing liquidation for unlawful activity.

Zum Ende. Working together to deliver relief and remedy to the victims and to amicably resolve a sensible and fair-minded international response to the management of the Remainder assets going forward is an absolute necessity.

In the last five years, nobody but my Team has come forward with anything approaching that.

The assets and the control of the assets must return to the Donors, by Public Law, by Public Policy, and most particularly, by the Roman Civil Law controlling the formation and character of the so-called Trust.  The Inheritors can only be Lawful Persons, and must stand on the International Jurisdiction of the Land.

The United States of America [Unincorporated] is such a Lawful Person and my Fiduciary Office is a Lawful Office of The United States of America.  I have retained and reclaimed my own Lawful Person and assisted thousands of other people in America and around the world to do the same.  More people wake up and join us every day.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

06 27 2020 Assault on Sanity



By Anna Von Reitz


My Mother was a fount of adages, one of which was:  “We are all a little bit crazy.”

This was usually uttered in defense of some poor soul whose logic circuits were called into question.

For example, your car broke down on the road near my house, so it’s my fault your car broke down.

Idiots developed a more infectious version of the Common Cold, [but it is still just the Common Cold] so we act as if we are facing the Bubonic Plague.

Somebody (whose name nobody knows anymore) abused and enslaved your great-great grandfather, so it’s my fault.

The Democrats set up and voted in a system of Public Slave Ownership, so it’s the Republican’s fault that this system exists.

This kind of logic always got my Mother to wave her hands, as if at unseen mosquitoes, or sometimes to shrug as if in response to fingernails scraping across a blackboard.

In her memory, I utter her forgiving mantra today over the entire nation.

We are all a little bit crazy.

It doesn’t matter what happened in 1865, except that that unfinished business still impacts us all today.

And it’s not a matter of race.  The victims come in all colors.

What matters is that the Slavers are still operating on our shores today.

And they have no right to be here.

Our deal with them restricts them to one mile square in the District of Columbia.

Obviously, the Municipal United States Government usurped the constitution, and formed 185,000 unauthorized municipal “city state” governments and municipal “boroughs” while the cats were away.

Enter the cats.

This is bound to cause just a tad bit of disruption, especially as we are also dealing with the underlying cause of the usurpation in the first place — the mess our Generals left us in after the Civil War.

Yes, we are all a little bit crazy, but not crazy enough to miss the take home message. And we can straighten out our logic circuits once the facts are known.

So tell your brothers of different colors that no, they aren’t imagining things. They really have been enslaved in the land of the free.

But they need to take in the view, and realize that their white brethren have been suffering the same fate, too.

And it is all based on usurpation of our lawful government — which we are owed — and commercial fraud, which is a crime.

So instead of getting mad at other victims of this fraud, get even.

Join your local lawful State Assembly.  Go to: http://www.TheAmericanStates Assembly.net.


See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

06 27 2020 This is Your Flag Too




By Anna Von Reitz

Designed in 1799 by Oliver Wolcott, the second Secretary of the Treasury, to fly in peacetime. It’s the flag that should be flying right now, if you are an American.

Yet, this beautiful flag of peace has flown only twenty-two years in our whole history. Why?

The answer is that our European “Federal Government” Subcontractors have kept us embroiled in an endless stream of commercial mercenary conflicts.

These illegal and often immoral conflicts have been called “wars” when they are commercial mercenary conflicts instead.

And our war flag, Old Glory, has been dredged in innocent blood, ours and the blood of many other nations, for the sake of nasty old men in the Vatican and sitting around in their leather club chairs in the Inner City of London.

It’s time we all put an end to this abuse and misuse of our country and our resources. Fly the Peace Flag.


www.USCivilFlags.org to order yours and learn the history.

Get your US Civil Flag here:  http://www.annavonreitz.com/order.html



To my loyal readers,

Olddog has reached his limit putting up with Mail Chimp and is looking for a different vendor, Please check in every day for new articles until I can find an email vendor that has a comprehensible editor for a reasonable price.

06 25 2020 The False Light of Lucifer



By Anna Von Reitz

“And no wonder, for even Satan himself masquerades as an Angel of Light….”

Second Corinthians 11:14.

In my writings I have often explained the modus operandi of the Dark Ones:

(1) They always pretend to be whomever they hate and target. For example, they pretend to be Jews, do terrible things, and leave the Jews to pay the price for their misdeeds, then turn around and don a priest’s cassock…. and on and on it goes. Until we see through this, they get away with it.

(2) They always accuse others of what they are doing themselves. Always. So, for example, when they accuse someone of stealing — look sharp and see where they have stolen something.

(3) Their weapons are lies. They depend on lies, deceits, omissions, and half-truths to thrive and survive. This is why we have to fight them with truth.

(4) They gossip incessantly about other people as individuals and as groups, and have a snarky superior, judgmental attitude, condescending, and unkind. They use this as a weapon and gossip en masse, in groups, as if they belong to a Hive Mind— like the Media Talking Heads endlessly repeating each other, often using exactly the same words and phrases. Their goal in this is to cast doubt on their enemy’s character, honesty, or competence–which they do by offering half-truths or by implying things and letting you make false assumptions.

(5) They often use animal symbols, especially bee, fox, snake, and owl images; when you see these symbols, you know that Satanists are involved and on the rise. Bees symbolize the Hive Mind, owls symbolize wisdom, but also symbolize Molloch— their baby consuming furnace “god”, snakes symbolize you-know-who, and foxes symbolize tricksters.

(6) These perpetrators plan things out long in advance, but they have no actual creativity, no spontaneity, and no ability to think on their feet. They find a scam, work it, and if they get away with it once, they will try it again– dredging up such chestnuts from hundreds of years in the past. For example:

(A) The Birth Certificate Fraud using “Special Purpose Vehicles” (SPV’s) is just a variation on a scam that created imaginary boats and placed bottomry bonds on them back in the early 1700s. (B) The PARSE Syntax fraud is just a variation on a very old deception racket involving DOG LATIN during the reign of the Roman Emperor Justinian.

(7) They specialize in entrapment of various kinds, especially bribery and blackmail. They will work sometimes for years to secure some damning bit of evidence against someone, and if that doesn’t work, they will simply make stuff up as if they succeeded anyway. Sometimes they get away with this “framing” simply by braying like a herd of donkeys — as they did with the “Russian Collusion” story. As long as we let them get away with this without punishment, they will continue to do it.

(8) The essence of their game is often to sap your energy and waste your time and “keep you busy and distracted” with their nonsense, so that you don’t pay attention to what they are really doing in the back room.

(9) When they are really under stress, as they are right now, they turn physically violent and start sacrificing their own business operations and also their own operatives, to make themselves look like the Good Guys — and they try to associate themselves with actual Good Guys — in the effort to save their own filthy hides.

While I want you all to know this information and take it to heart and learn it and observe it and remember it and teach it to your children—I want to focus your attention on this last mentioned part right now, item (9) directly above.

Just because someone appears to be fighting something really evil like child-trafficking or drug smuggling, don’t take them at face value. When times get tough these Big Business interests think nothing of shutting down even very substantial operations and sacrificing their best operatives to save themselves and make them look like Good Guys.

This is just a variation of their predilection for taking on the identity or acting out the character of someone else.

Thus, as you go forward through this @#$@-storm of deceit and lies and false identities, remember the words of Second Corinthians quoted above and guard yourselves from being anything less than honest, avoid gossiping and if anyone gossips to you, especially in a demeaning or judgmental fashion, turn away from them and rebuke them and expose their activities to the would-be victims.

It is only by truth, honesty, and sincerity that we conquer. It is only by virtue that we thrive. And it is only by eschewing all greed, lechery, selfishness, or “need” of any kind, that we avoid their traps and blackmail schemes. Most of all we must learn to be watchful and observant and not let them steal our time and attention or distract us from what is important and real.

To the extent that you learn how these diabolical enemies think and act, you will be able to recognize them for who they are and be prepared to protect yourself and your families and your communities from them.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

06 25 2020 Here’s What I Am Talking About and What You Need to See



By Anna Von Reitz

While the Media Schmucks have been standing around snarking and stuffing people’s heads full of lies, omissions, deceits, and nonsense — this is just a partial list sent by a friend of what Donald Trump and his Administration has accomplished while you slept. As you read this list, including all you Leftist Liars and Whiners— see how much this man did for all of you, too, and ask yourselves if you really think you could do more or better?

June 17, 2020.

The Media doesn’t want you to know this. Please just take the time to read the list. You might be surprised at the things that are important to you.

What have PRESIDENT TRUMP and his cabinet accomplished in 3.5 years with zero help from the left…..

Here you go.

* Trump recently signed 3 bills to benefit Native people. One gives compensation to the Spokane tribe for loss of their lands in the mid-1900s, one funds Native language programs, and the third gives federal recognition to the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians in Montana.

* Trump finalized the creation of Space Force as our 6th Military branch.

* Trump signed a law to make cruelty to animals a federal felony so that animal abusers face tougher consequences.

* Violent crime has fallen every year he’s been in office after rising during the 2 years before he was elected.

* Trump signed a bill making CBD and Hemp legal.

* Trump’s EPA gave $100 million to fix the water infrastructure problem in Flint, Michigan.

* Under Trump’s leadership, in 2018 the U.S. surpassed Russia and Saudi Arabia to become the world’s largest producer of crude oil.

* Trump signed a law ending the gag orders on Pharmacists that prevented them from sharing money-saving information.

* Trump signed the “Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act” (FOSTA), which includes the “Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act” (SESTA) which both give law enforcement and victims new tools to fight sex trafficking.

* Trump signed a bill to require airports to provide spaces for breastfeeding Moms.

* The 25% lowest-paid Americans enjoyed a 4.5% income boost in November 2019, which outpaces a 2.9% gain in earnings for the country’s highest-paid workers.

* Low-wage workers are benefiting from higher minimum wages and from corporations that are increasing entry-level pay.

* Trump signed the biggest wilderness protection & conservation bill in a decade and designated 375,000 acres as protected land.

* Trump signed the Save our Seas Act which funds $10 million per year to clean tons of plastic & garbage from the ocean.

* He signed a bill this year allowing some drug imports from Canada so that prescription prices would go down.

* Trump signed an executive order this year that forces all healthcare providers to disclose the cost of their services so that Americans can comparison shop and know how much less providers charge insurance companies.

* When signing that bill he said no American should be blindsided by bills for medical services they never agreed to in advance.

* Hospitals will now be required to post their standard charges for services, which include the discounted price a hospital is willing to accept.

* In the eight years prior to President Trump’s inauguration, prescription drug prices increased by an average of 3.6% per year. Under Trump, drug prices have seen year-over-year declines in nine of the last ten months, with a 1.1% drop as of the most recent month.

* He created a White House VA Hotline to help veterans and principally staffed it with veterans and direct family members of veterans.

* VA employees are being held accountable for poor performance, with more than 4,000 VA employees removed, demoted, and suspended so far.

* Issued an executive order requiring the Secretaries of Defense, Homeland Security, and Veterans Affairs to submit a joint plan to provide veterans access to access to mental health treatment as they transition to civilian life.

* Because of a bill signed and championed by Trump, In 2020, most federal employees will see their pay increase by an average of 3.1% — the largest raise in more than 10 years.

* Trump signed into a law up to 12 weeks of paid parental leave for millions of federal workers.

* Trump administration will provide HIV prevention drugs for free to 200,000 uninsured patients per year for 11 years.

* All-time record sales during the 2019 holidays.

* Trump signed an order allowing small businesses to group together when buying insurance to get a better price.

* President Trump signed the Preventing Maternal Deaths Act that provides funding for states to develop maternal mortality reviews to better understand maternal complications and identify solutions & largely focuses on reducing the higher mortality rates for Black Americans.

* In 2018, President Trump signed the groundbreaking First Step Act, a criminal justice bill which enacted reforms that make our justice system fairer and help former inmates successfully return to society.

* The First Step Act’s reforms addressed inequities in sentencing laws that disproportionately harmed Black Americans and reformed mandatory minimums that created unfair outcomes.

* The First Step Act expanded judicial discretion in sentencing of non-violent crimes.

* Over 90% of those benefiting from the retroactive sentencing reductions in the First Step Act are Black Americans.

* The First Step Act provides rehabilitative programs to inmates, helping them successfully rejoin society and not return to crime.

* Trump increased funding for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) by more than 14%.

* Trump signed legislation forgiving Hurricane Katrina debt that threatened HBCUs.

* New single-family home sales are up 31.6% in October 2019 compared to just one year ago.

* Made HBCUs a priority by creating the position of executive director of the White House Initiative on HBCUs.

* Trump received the Bipartisan Justice Award at a historically black college for his criminal justice reform accomplishments.

* The poverty rate fell to a 17-year low of 11.8% under the Trump administration as a result of a jobs-rich environment.

* Poverty rates for African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans have reached their lowest levels since the U.S. began collecting such data.

* President Trump signed a bill that creates five national monuments, expands several national parks, adds 1.3 million acres of wilderness, and permanently reauthorizes the Land and Water Conservation Fund.

* Trump’s USDA committed $124 Million to rebuild rural water infrastructure.

* Consumer confidence & small business confidence is at an all time high.

* More than 7 million jobs created since election.

* More Americans are now employed than ever recorded before in our history.

* More than 400,000 manufacturing jobs created since his election.

* Trump appointed 5 openly gay ambassadors.

* Trump ordered Ric Grenell, his openly gay ambassador to Germany, to lead a global initiative to decriminalize homosexuality across the globe.

* Through Trump’s Anti-Trafficking Coordination Team (ACTeam) initiative, Federal law enforcement more than doubled convictions of human traffickers and increased the number of defendants charged by 75% in ACTeam districts.

* In 2018, the Department of Justice (DOJ) dismantled an organization that was the internet’s leading source of prostitution-related advertisements resulting in sex trafficking.

* Trump’s OMB published new anti-trafficking guidance for government procurement officials to more effectively combat human trafficking.

* Trump’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations arrested 1,588 criminals associated with Human Trafficking.

* Trump’s Department of Health and Human Services provided funding to support the National Human Trafficking Hotline to identify perpetrators and give victims the help they need.

* The hotline identified 16,862 potential human trafficking cases.

* Trump’s DOJ provided grants to organizations that support human trafficking victims – serving nearly 9,000 cases from July 1, 2017, to June 30, 2018.

* The Department of Homeland Security has hired more victim assistance specialists, helping victims get resources and support.

* President Trump has called on Congress to pass school choice legislation so that no child is trapped in a failing school because of his or her zip code.

* The President signed funding legislation in September 2018 that increased funding for school choice by $42 million.

* The tax cuts signed into law by President Trump promote school choice by allowing families to use 529 college savings plans for elementary and secondary education.

* Under his leadership ISIS has lost most of their territory and been largely dismantled.

* ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi was killed.

* Signed the first Perkins CTE re-authorization since 2006, authorizing more than $1 billion for states each year to fund vocational and career education programs.

* Executive order expanding apprenticeship opportunities for students and workers.

* Trump issued an Executive Order prohibiting the U.S. government from discriminating against Christians or punishing expressions of faith.

* Signed an executive order that allows the government to withhold money from college campuses deemed to be anti-Semitic and who fail to combat anti-Semitism.

* President Trump ordered a halt to U.S. tax money going to international organizations that fund or perform abortions.

* Trump imposed sanctions on the socialists in Venezuela who have killed their citizens.

* Finalized new trade agreement with South Korea.

* Made a deal with the European Union to increase U.S. energy exports to Europe.

* Withdrew the U.S. from the job killing TPP deal.

* Secured $250 billion in new trade and investment deals in China and $12 billion in Vietnam.

* Okay’d up to $12 billion in aid for farmers affected by unfair trade retaliation.

* Has had over a dozen US hostages freed, including those Obama could not get freed.

* Trump signed the Music Modernization Act, the biggest change to copyright law in decades.

* Trump secured Billions that will fund the building of a wall at our southern border.

* The Trump Administration is promoting second chance hiring to give former inmates the opportunity to live crime-free lives and find meaningful employment.

* Trump’s DOJ and the Board Of Prisons launched a new “Ready to Work Initiative” to help connect employers directly with former prisoners.

* President Trump’s historic tax cut legislation included new Opportunity Zone Incentives to promote investment in low-income communities across the country.

* 8,764 communities across the country have been designated as Opportunity Zones.

* Opportunity Zones are expected to spur $100 billion in long-term private capital investment in economically distressed communities across the country.

* Trump directed the Education Secretary to end Common Core.

* Trump signed the 9/11 Victims Compensation Fund into law.

* Trump signed measure funding prevention programs for Veteran suicide.

* Companies have brought back over a TRILLION dollars from overseas because of the TCJA bill that Trump signed.

* Manufacturing jobs are growing at the fastest rate in more than 30 years.

* Stock Market has reached record highs.

* Median household income has hit highest level ever recorded.

* African-American unemployment is at an all time low.(was until covid bullshit)

* Hispanic-American unemployment is at an all time low.

* Asian-American unemployment is at an all time low.

* Women’s unemployment rate is at a 65-year low.

* Youth unemployment is at a 50-year low.

* We have the lowest unemployment rate ever recorded.

* The Pledge to America’s Workers has resulted in employers committing to train more than 4 million Americans.

* 95 percent of U.S. manufacturers are optimistic about the future— the highest ever.

* As a result of the Republican tax bill, small businesses will have the lowest top marginal tax rate in more than 80 years.

* Record number of regulations eliminated that hurt small businesses.

* Signed welfare reform requiring able-bodied adults who don’t have children to work or look for work if they’re on welfare.

* Under Trump, the FDA approved more affordable generic drugs than ever before in history.

* Reformed Medicare program to stop hospitals from overcharging low-income seniors on their drugs—saving seniors 100’s of millions of $$$ this year alone.

* Signed Right-To-Try legislation allowing terminally ill patients to try experimental treatment that wasn’t allowed before.

* Secured $6 billion in new funding to fight the opioid epidemic.

* Signed VA Choice Act and VA Accountability Act, expanded VA telehealth services, walk-in-clinics, and same-day urgent primary and mental health care.

* U.S. oil production recently reached all-time high so we are less dependent on oil from the Middle East.

* The U.S. is a net natural gas exporter for the first time since 1957.

* NATO allies increased their defense spending because of his pressure campaign.

* Withdrew the United States from the job-killing Paris Climate Accord in 2017 and that same year the U.S. still led the world by having the largest reduction in Carbon emissions.

* Has his circuit court judge nominees being confirmed faster than any other new administration.

* Had his Supreme Court Justice’s Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh confirmed.

* Moved U.S. Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.

* Agreed to a new trade deal with Mexico & Canada that will increase jobs here and $$$ coming in.

* Reached a breakthrough agreement with the E.U. to increase U.S. exports.

* Imposed tariffs on China in response to China’s forced technology transfer, intellectual property theft, and their chronically abusive trade practices, has agreed to a Part One trade deal with China.

* Signed legislation to improve the National Suicide Hotline.

* Signed the most comprehensive childhood cancer legislation ever into law, which will advance childhood cancer research and improve treatments.

* The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act signed into law by Trump doubled the maximum amount of the child tax credit available to parents and lifted the income limits so more people could claim it.

* It also created a new tax credit for other dependents.

* In 2018, President Trump signed into law a $2.4 billion funding increase for the Child Care and Development Fund, providing a total of $8.1 billion to States to fund child care for low-income families.

* The Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit (CDCTC) signed into law by Trump provides a tax credit equal to 20-35% of child care expenses, $3,000 per child & $6,000 per family + Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs) allow you to set aside up to $5,000 in pre-tax $ to use for child care.

* In 2019 President Donald Trump signed the Autism Collaboration, Accountability, Research, Education and Support Act (CARES) into law which allocates $1.8 billion in funding over the next five years to help people with autism spectrum disorder and to help their families.

* In 2019 President Trump signed into law two funding packages providing nearly $19 million in new funding for Lupus specific research and education programs, as well an additional $41.7 billion in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the most Lupus funding EVER.

* Another upcoming accomplishment to add: In the next week or two Trump will be signing the first major anti-robocall law in decades called the TRACED Act (Telephone Robocall Abuse Criminal Enforcement and Deterrence.) Once it’s the law, the TRACED Act will extend the period of time the FCC has to catch & punish those who intentionally break telemarketing restrictions. The bill also requires voice service providers to develop a framework to verify calls are legitimate before they reach your phone.

* US stock market continually hits all-time record highs.

* Because so many people asked for a document with all of this listed in one place, here it is. No links provided to remove bias as Google search is easy. Print this out for family, friends, neighbors, etc. I encourage you to drop this list off to voters before the 2020 election too!

*Trump did all of this while fighting flagrant abuse and impeachment charges.

[And that, as they say, is the Proof in the Pudding. — AvR]

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

06 25 2020 Letter to the Joint Chiefs 24 June 2020



 By Anna Von Reitz


We are enclosing the substance of our letter sent to United Nations Secretary General Guterres and President Trump this morning.

If you value your power, your jobs, your pensions, your reputations or anything else in this world, you’d better get off your flat asses and shut down the Plan-demic “live exercise” and come to heel right about now.

And as for President Trump, you’d better take very good care of him. He is the only one of you that has a firm contract. The rest of you can be dismissed like so many farts in the wind.


Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary

The United States of America [Unincorporated]


Letter to United Nations Secretary-General, June 24, 2020

Dear Mr. Guterres and Mr. Trump:

It has come to our attention that our doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, and other respected health care professionals have been illegally conscripted as “Uniformed Officers” and also illegally licensed so as to coerce their compliance with political agendas and promote the use of these professionals to conduct “war” on our shores.

Our doctors have been forced for fear of not being able to make a living in their profession, to participate in the thoroughly illegal, immoral, and unlawful practice of presuming political statuses upon babies, which has resulted in a virtual genocide on paper against the civilian population in this country.

The doctors, though personally and morally culpable to the extent that they have known the result of their participation in issuing “Birth Certificates” are not to be held generally liable; that burden devolves upon the politicians who wrote and adopted the offending Federal Code and upon the Principals who allowed this without oversight.

We are suspending all Medical Doctor’s licenses in this country and the licenses of all other Health Care Professionals. All those affected will be able to continue with their work without regard to the American Medical Association (AMA) union, and without regard to any punishments or limitations offered under any Federal or Federal franchise State-of-State Code. Former Medical Doctors will henceforth function as Private Physicians on our shores, and any future oversight deemednecessary in the interests of public health will be done by the civilian government.

Similarly, all nurses, pharmacists, dentists, and other health care professionals are released from any conscription into Federal Service as Medical Officers licensed by the American Medical Association (AMA) or any other professional guild.

These persons may not be used for any obligatory military service against their will and may not be coerced by any “required” license or guild card issued by any labor union or professional association operating a closed shop. This goes for both the American Medical Association and its practices and both the American Bar Association and the United States Bar Association.

We have reason to believe that Medical Personnel are being used on a worldwide basis to conduct a form of proxy mercenary war against the civilian population of many countries and that these crimes are being purposefully predicated on deceit and abuse of Public Trust in the medical profession— a trust placed in these professionals without knowing that these professionals have been conscripted and coerced under involuntary military service obligations.

Thus, any Medical Doctor could be forced to lie under oath, to give false information to patients, to prescribe ineffective or even harmful medications and therapies, to sign false Birth Certificates, to recommend harmful practices such as giving untested and dangerous vaccinations, to present false test results, to falsify scientific research, and undertake other acts of “war” against reason and the Public Good.

We believe that our medical professionals have been pressed into service in exactly this kind of activity with regard not only to the issuance of falsified birth records, but also in the development and delivery of harmful vaccines and pharmaceuticals, the promotion of abortion and sale of fetal tissues and organs, and now, the staging of a False Flag in China, the development and release of an enhanced version of the Common Cold Virus to target the world’s elderly population, and forced participation in this quasi-military “operation” designed to fool and bilk and traumatize the public that these men and women are otherwise supposed to serve.

These activities are pre-planned and heinous in all regards, costing trillions of dollars and disruption of services and the uprooting and unemployment of hundreds of millions of people worldwide.

We are therefore taking these actions and inviting all member nations of the United Nations to follow suit in the prompt removal of all military service conscription and military licensing of medical and legal professionals, and also in bringing prompt prosecution against those governmental services corporations and professional associations that are responsible for this gross betrayal of public trust and deplorable misuse of medical and legal professionals as “soldiers” in illegal mercenary wars.

We wish for the Plan-demic to be shut down and exposed as– and exactly as US Secretary of State Michael Pompeo called it, a “live exercise”, and also as the mean-spirited and self-interested Hoax that it is, criminal in intent and illegal for any national military force to engage in using “Uniformed Officers”.

The entire world has suffered as a result of, again, the venal duplicity and dishonesty of the Government of Westminster, Great Britain, the proxy government they have run in the United States, the egregious negligence and Bad Faith of the Roman Curia, and the actions of commercial corporations and corporate executives also serving as “Corporate Officers” conscripted into this scheme of Corporate Feudalism.

We call for the immediate arrest and execution of Bill Gates, for his crimes against humanity and especially against the elderly and the children of the world via his vaccination programs. We call for the confiscation of his personal and corporate assets in payment for these crimes.

We similarly call for the immediate arrest and execution of George Soros, for his crimes against humanity which include fomenting insurrection on a worldwide basis, harmful subliminal programming delivered via popular music and movies and television, human trafficking, and other crimes too numerous to mention. We call for the confiscation of his personal and corporate holdings in payment for these crimes.

These evil men and the evils they promote and foist upon others for the sake of political power and love of money must be brought to an end.

We also call for the immediate dissolution and liquidation of the American Medical Association as an unlawful labor union and closed union shop. We similarly call for the immediate dissolution and liquidation of the American Bar Association and the United States Bar Association for the same cause.

And we hereby publish the end of any municipal or military conscription of or licensing of medical professionals as “Uniformed Officers” anywhere the long arm of our government extends, on our shores or in our names. This madness and destruction and betrayal of the Public Trust must be brought to a swift and decisive end — and we, the American States and People, will not be blamed for it.

This entire heinous circumstance, the destruction that has been visited upon the world economy, upon the elderly and upon the babies and children, lies with the politicians, bankers, generals, admirals, and corporate executives who have sought their own self-interest and gross enrichment at the expense of their customers and employers.

These short-sighted criminals must be tracked down, prosecuted, and removed on a permanent basis from any position of public trust or benefit—including the benefit of being able to form corporations and enabled to seek bankruptcy protection for themselves and their enterprises. Any corporation or association or organization of any kind which promotes agendas contrary to the Public Good must be liquidated with prejudice and permanently disbanded.

If we discover any church or religious organization, any labor union or professional association, any club, any military organization or government subcontractor participating in medical or commercial crimes or acting as a storefront secluding criminal activity, they will be taken over, their property will be confiscated, and their employees will be out of work.

Most sincerely,

Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary

The United States of America [Unincorporated]

06 24 2020 WHY Do I Support President Trump?




By Anna Von Reitz

I have lately been under attack for supporting President Trump—- so let me put it to you all in blunt terms.

Tonight at dinner I was surrounded by elegant well-educated people, all describing President Trump in disparaging ways, the essence of which was that he was not “credible” because he was gruff, because he had managed casinos and hotels as investments, because his family were relatively recent immigrants, because he has a foreign-born wife, because his daughter married a Jew and he has Jewish friends, because he is nouveau riche, because Rothschild-owned banking interests helped him through multiple bankruptcies, because, because, because….

To which I replied — for all that, I don’t care and I am sick of the so-called intelligentsia trashing this man, and saying that he is “not credible” and “not acceptable”.

Donald Trump is the only President in my lifetime who has kept — to the best of his ability— every campaign promise he made.

Every single one.

Even now, when his enemies have choked off his money and otherwise tried to ham-string this man, he continues to fight and to drain the swamp, which was the last promise he made to the voters of this country.

I long ago listened to Joshua, the one nearly everyone else calls “Jesus” though that is not his name—— judge People by what they do, and not by what they say. The tree by its fruits.

Donald Trump said many good things on the campaign trail, and those of us who have been paying attention can testify that every single thing he promised he has done— or tried to do— against greater odds than most men would ever dare to face.

And that is WHY I stand with  Donald Trump.

That is why I care about him and want to work with him and why he is the only man who has a contract to act as Commander in Chief.

He is the first President in my lifetime to keep his word.

To all the oh-so-smart-so-politically-correct people of the world, that may not count—but to me, this means everything.

A man who keeps his word, is a man of character despite his faults and sins and errors.  He is credible—- more credible than any President who has ever occupied the White House in my six-going-on-seven decades.

So all you sneering young people, and older people, too— who should know better— take a good, hard look at the record.

Donald Trump has kept his promises to the people who voted for him.

When can any of you remember anything like that happening? Ever?

And so to those who wink and nod and say, “Trump is not credible.”  I say —/how credible are you?  Where is your comparable record?

When have you kept your word half as faithfully as he has?  And against greater odds?

When have you arm-chair quarterbacks gotten off the bench and weighed in to get the results you say you want?

When is the last time that you identified yourself as an American and gave the Congress a taste of what you really think of them?

When have you taken your responsibility for the government and destiny of this country, like Donald Trump has?

Do I respect Donald Trump? From the bottoms of his feet to the last strand of his “orange” hair?  Yes, you bet I do.

And the reason is simple.

He is a man who keeps his word.

And all the other liars and cheats and scam artists and talking heads can just go soak their heads in the nearest toilet.

When I look at Trump’s record, it speaks for itself. And yes, I trust and respect this man.

He is not always right. There are times when he has taken bad advice and times when his hands were tied by circumstance —but in the end I can look at what he has said and I can match it exactly against what he has done.

What other politician in your lifetime has done that?  And I can give you the answer—None.

And that is WHY I stand with Donald Trump.

Another reason beyond keeping his word, is the fact that he always tells the truth as he sees it.

In this great spiritual war, those criminals who seek the demise of mankind and the enslavement of our country and our world, do nothing but lie and confuse and pervert. Snideness is their stock in trade.

They couldn’t tell the truth if their lives depended upon it, because they don’t have the Spirit of Truth in their hearts.

Donald Trump does.

It is a rare and wondrous thing to see an honest  man in Washington, DC. Pause. Take a moment. Drink it in.

Donald Trump is the most “credible” man I have seen in the Oval Office in a long, long time.

And I am sick of all the brain dead pundits talking him down and casting doubts and aspersions on Donald Trump.

Name me one (1) other politician who kept all his campaign promises — or sit down and shut up.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com


06 24 2020 On Kings



By Anna Von Reitz

Our family has been avoiding the task of ruling over other people— and has instead advocated the empowerment and education necessary for men to engage in self-government— since 487 A. D.   We are the ones who wrote the Magna Carta.  We are the ones who declared and established the sovereignty of the American People.

It is the utter height of idiocy for anyone to imagine that we ever wanted to be kings or queens over anyone.  Ruling over other people is a tremendously inappropriate, thankless, tedious, nasty job and there is no reason for it.

We have one (1) Creator and he is our True Father, Lord, and King.

This Canaanite idea that we should choose kings and lift up one among us to rule over everyone else and that we should so worship and honor a man is blasphemy—– and also stupidity, because it doesn’t reliably work.

If you get lucky and get a good king, he expends his life as a sacrifice for the good of the kingdom.  Next time around you may get an idiot who abdicates all responsibility and grinds the kingdom into the ground.  There is no way to guarantee any good result from a human monarchy — never has been and never will be.

It is an idea and practice and institution that has consistently failed since the days of Samuel.

THAT is why we have advocated that men should worship their Creator as they best understand their Creator, and love themselves and each other and the rest of all creation—– and each one should be given the education and support to become an ethical and self-governing man or woman.

Not bundled together in a herd and treated like sheep and ruled over by a despotic False Shepherd.

Everyone who does not consider himself a king, envies the king and imagines “what it would be like to be king” —- but knows nothing at all about the realities of fulfilling such a position.  A good king or queen becomes a living sacrifice to the job. They have no life of their own.  They are criticized and venerated and threatened at every turn, accosted by every madman, undermined by every politician, surrounded by people who would rather avoid their own responsibilities in life in exchange for subjection and a pension.

Thus, both from the standpoint of the sovereign and the standpoint of the subject, monarchy is a lousy, unstable, unworkable, sacrificial, blasphemous Canannite system — and always has been.

We are all supposed to be the kings and queens of our own lives, to bear our own responsibilities, to educate and exercise ourselves, to make our own decisions, to establish our values, ethics, and precepts, and yes, to rule over our own lives, our families, our communities, our nations and our world as individual people.

It is as unique living beings with individual responsibilities and rights that we are to be honored and protected and valued— the kings and queens of our own lives.

Now, all those who are making these rumors that I want my son to be “king of the world” —- why would any Mother, knowing what a miserable job being “king” really is, want that for her son?   Why would anyone knowing what I know and what my family has always known about monarchy want to continue such a failed system?

You have The Settlement of the Norman Conquest, The Magna Carta, The Declaration of Independence, our silence for six generations, and our silence throughout our own lives until our old age to prove that, no,  we don’t want to be kings—- but those who are spreading the rumors that we do, are also revealing something to you.

They are revealing that they accept monarchy and support the idea of monarchy, either as would-be kings or would-be subjects.

There is one King who should rule our hearts— the Lord of the Earth, the Prince of Peace, the Wonderful Counselor, the Everlasting Father— and if you have the sense of a turnip, it should now be apparent that he is more than all the king we shall ever need or accept to rule over us.  Let that king enter and rule your hearts and minds and bless your lives and you won’t have to worry about who — or what — rules over you.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com


06 24 2020 Letter to United Nations Secretary General, June 23 2020




By Anna Von Reitz

Dear Secretary-General Guterres,

As the legitimate and now only government still standing, The United States of America [Unincorporated] requests to see those Geneva Conventions and G-5, G-7, and G-20 treaties that “the” United States dba UNITED STATES, INC.,  and “the” United States of America dba “THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, INC.” have signed in our names, so that we may determine whether or not any of our contracts with these entities and the Principals involved were authorized.

The exact terms and nature of our contracts with these other Principals are well known throughout the world as “The Constitution of the United States” and as “The Constitution of the United States of America”.  It is also generally known that we have not altered nor amended those service contracts since 1819 and that our government has not been called into Session since 1860.

It is self-evident that our trust both in the other Principals and in our Employees has been misplaced and that a great deal of embezzlement, fraud of various kinds, usurpation against the lawful government, and international breach of trust has taken place.

We think it only right and proper that we request to be brought up to date regarding these corporate bankruptcies via treaty which have been taking place “in our names” without any granted authority from us, and that we should be held harmless, and that our guarantees and property interests should be honored not only by the other Principals who are responsible for this grotesque injustice, but by all other governments worldwide.

If it is within the power and knowledge of your office or your Member’s offices, please forward copies of the current treaties and record our exemption and objection to being presumed upon.

Please also note that the Carter Administration had no authority to transfer any of our state offices to the United Nations.  The International Organizations Immunity Act of 1976 is a nullity in that respect.

Finally, please note that the Carter Administration had no authority to transfer illegally purloined child labor contracts and bonds established under False Presumptions upon Americans to the IMF, and the IMF, equally, had no authority to sell or transfer those bonds to Black Rock, Inc. and its assigns.

The fundamental international Maxim of Law that applies is: “Possession by pirates does not change ownership.”  The further fundamental international Maxim of Law that pertains is: “Fraud vitiates all.”

We, the American States and People, have been grossly defrauded in Breach of Trust. We have borne the Lion’s Share of the world’s debts and expenses. We have paid the bulk of the cost of rebuilding the entire world infrastructure since the end of World War II, and we have been repaid with nothing but disservice by our own misdirected employees and our purported Allies.

Let this be a lesson and stand as an example before all the other national governments of the world of exactly how coercive, unaccountable, and criminal incorporated entities by nature are, and the foolishness of allowing any incorporated entity to operate “as” a government, and equally, the foolishness of Principals who abandon their contractual obligations to incorporated entities.

It is not — we repeat — not our intention nor our desire to create panic, nor is there any reason for panic.  There is, however, need for sober reconsideration of the rights and responsibilities of the various nations involved and also a need for negotiated settlement of the issues.

Most sincerely,

Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary

The United States of America [Unincorporated]

06 23 2020 Lets Be Clear About the Federal Republic



 By Anna Von Reitz

The “Federal Republic” that Mr. Trump keeps talking about is a subcontractor of the American Confederacy established in 1781.

The Union of States created the Federation of States called The United States of America and the member States of the Federation created the Confederation of the States of America. There is a logic here.

The (e)states claimed by the former Colonies had to be extended to the international land jurisdiction and formed as States, these States then created a Federation to enable them to act as one entity in international affairs, and then each State formed a “State of State” to do business for them, and these “States of States” were then included as members of the original Confederation formed in March of 1781.

Six years later, it was decided to structure the business affairs by issuing three Constitutions, one each for three “Federal” Subcontractors, that would supplement the government in much the same way that we hire plumbers, electricians and architects.

The Federal subcontractors were the States of America, the British Territorial Government, and the Roman Municipal Government.

So the original Confederation doing business as the States of America was the Federal Subcontractor operating the Federal Republic.

When the original Confederation was split apart over Lincoln’s election, so was the Federal Republic.

One cannot restore the Federal Republic without restoring the Confederation, and one cannot reconstruct or resurrect the Confederation without first summoning the actual States into Session.

Why? Because the actual States are the only ones who can form the American States of States needed to restore the Federal Government.

1, 2, 3 — American States give rise to American States of States, and to their Confederation, which runs the American part of the Federal Government known as the Federal Republic.

Florida creates The State of Florida, and then The State of Florida as a member of the Confederation participates in running the Federal Republic.

That’s the way it is supposed to work.

The largest part of the Federal Government is supposed to be under the direction of these American States of States, not British Territorial States of States, and not Municipal STATES OF STATES, either.

You can see that in the documents and in the history and in the Reconstruction Acts and after all, it only makes common sense, that if the American States were going to hand out juicy services contracts, the Lion’s Share should go to their own business entities —not foreign interests.

And so it was, right up until the Civil War, when everything went ballywhump.

The Reconstruction of our Confederation and, secondarily, the reconstruction of the Federal Government Republic, has been left hanging since the Civil War, simply because we were never fully informed of the circumstance.

We didn’t act, because we were duped into thinking that everything was already done. The British Government moved in and without full disclosure, installed British Territorial States of States to replace the American versions, as an “emergency” measure.

The only difference that Joe Q. Public could observe was a subtle name change from “The State of Maine” for example, to “the” State of Maine.

The British Territorial Government and their cohorts in the Roman Municipal Government dba “the” United States have been collusively usurping upon their Employers ever since 1937, under the terms of an agreement known as “The Declaration of Interdependence of the Governments in The United States”.

And the American People were never told a word about it. Nothing was said. Nothing was taught about it in the schools. It has taken 150 years and horrific abuses for us to waken from our slumber, evaluate the situation, and take effective action.

We stand ready to help Mr. Trump and his cohorts in the Military to restore the Federal Republic as an American enterprise, not a British one. And we point out that Federal Citizens, whether U.S. Citizens or citizens of the United States, don’t have the correct political standing to do the job of Reconstruction.

Only Americans who reclaim their birthright political status as State Citizens can act as the People who designed and who have the power to restore both the States of America Confederation and the Federal Republic.

The United States of America (Unincorporated) is still here, our States and People are still here, and we are the only lawful government still standing on this Continent. We are not bankrupt and we are not absent.

We are the only beings on this planet with the lawful standing to Reconstruct the States of America and the Federal Republic, and now that we finally know what needs to be done, we have assembled to do the job that should have been done in 1865.

The United States Military is asked to review the fact that they owe their oath and allegiance to the States and People of America, their actual Employers, and that they are supposed to be acting under the direction of our civilian government — not at the behest of fellow subcontractors and lobbyists.

And let’s everybody, including our British subcontractors, get on the same page.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com


06 22 2020 Fear Not. Gather Together. Push Back.





By Anna Von Reitz
While the doom and gloom sayers are telling you to wear masks (which are NOT recommended by the Surgeon General) and to stay socially isolated (so that you feel lonely and helpless) — we tell you to fear nothing, and to gather together your resources for the Push Back.

The evil we deal with now is spiritual and mental, and the primary weapon of the Enemy of Mankind — as always, is lies. Just plain old fabrications.

Let me remind everyone that if they could lie about the Atomic Bomb, there is no limit to the Big, Fat Whoppers these guys will tell. We are dealing with Professional Liars and Stage Actors. Literally. Card-carrying. Licensed.

So with that as a Given, let’s reason our way through the nonsense.

Covid-19 is an “enhanced” variety of the Common Cold. That enhancement makes it more infectious, but not more deadly on a case by case basis.

That is, more people catch it, so more people will die from it, but, on a case by case basis, the death rate is the same or lower than the Common Cold — about 0.02%, or one fiftieth of one percent.

Have you ever been so afraid of the Common Cold that you would hunker down in your house like a hibernating marmot for three months, close your business, and lose your job and go bankrupt?

Yet, that’s what people have done, under the lash of a gigantic disinformation campaign. We’ve been committing economic suicide for three months based on nothing but lies.

Still not sure it’s a lie? Just look at the members of ANTIFA and BLM and all these rally-goers rubbing up against each other and shouting their lungs out.
See any masks? Any “social distancing”?

If they are united and we are divided, doesn’t that give them an edge?

89 people have died in these riots thus far. What about them? Where are their gold coffins and kneeling crowds?

The Push Back is in your hearts as you are reading this. Realize that this is a spiritual battle — and that you are in the midst of a spiritual war of good against evil, truth against lies, and fact against fiction.

There is, attached to each one of us, a lie.

It is so subtle that it seems to be part of us, but it is not part of us. It is totally foreign, like an insidious parasite attached to your skin. It has been there, attached to you, throughout your life. But it’s not you, and it never was.

In a way, this spiritual interloper impersonates you in the same way that the Municipal PERSON has impersonated you— and it is just as hard to perceive, and just as hard to get rid of.

Start thinking about the darkness and fear and emptiness that lurks in you as a foreign substance, something that poisons you, and which needs to be released— let go. Stop clinging to it. It’s not you. It’s not true.

This weekend is the celebration of Summer Solstice and the Luciferians are out parading around, raping and pillaging and blaming others. Summer Solstice marks the sun’s highest zenith above the horizon in the Northern Hemisphere, the longest day of the year.

Most normal people think of it as a celebration of the growing season, but to Luciferians, this is the day when the actual sun begins to die and the Summer Solstice is all about the triumph of death over life. It’s just the opposite of what people think it is.

So the rest of us must stand strong and gather together in heart and spirit and push back, but how? By affirming the value of life, by staying steady in our commitment to justice and kindness, by focusing on all the things that unite us.

Today is also Father’s Day, and an appropriate time to think about our Father in Heaven, the True Father and Creator of All That Is, and also think about the gift of life he has given us through his life. That is a real cause to celebrate.

Let’s also appreciate all the good men everywhere who are devoted to their families and who shoulder their responsibilities in the world without whining or complaining, without blaming or threatening, without shouting and harming others.

To these good men we all need to give our respect and support, today and every day throughout the year.

Say a little prayer for all the good men in the world and bless them going forward.

Let the hand of the Good Lord guide them. Let the love of the True God inspire them. Let Truth be set before them. Let Kindness guard their lives and souls.
And let their wives and families loyally support them throughout the coming year.

Too often families have been broken apart by self-interested corporations bent on predation, and too often wives have been too weak and too fearful to stand in their own space and support their husbands.

Let this be a call to America’s women to remember why we fell in love in the first place and what is important in life, not just now, but forever hereafter.

We are each writing our stories and we have the opportunity to cast the darkness out of our souls. Let us do so with a will and a determination to forgive ourselves for our back-sliding, our disgraceful acts, and our betrayals, in exact measure to our resolve to be our best and bravest from now on, for our own sake and for each other.

Let’s make use of all the abundant bright light this day provides to look in the mirror, to see the shadow that clings to us, and cast it out. See yourself and see your country restored, whole, and full of abundant life, bathed in the pure light of Heaven, and set free to live in peace.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: http://www.annavonreitz.com



06 20 2020 The Five Nations Our Reptile Brains



By Anna Von Reitz

Most people in the modern world know that they have both a conscious and a subconscious mind.  They also know that they have two brains, one that functions as the repository of stored memory, and active thought, and one that keeps the automatic systems of the body operating 24/7.  This second brain and the autonomous system it operates is commonly called “the reptile brain”. 

It is called the reptile brain because, well, that’s what it is.  

How this happened and to what final end it has come, is a matter of legend on one hand, and modern factual reality on the other. 

When it comes to this, not to add to the misplaced focus on our differences, there are five main progenitors— one group of amphibians similar to axolotls, and four groups of reptiles—fish, snakes, turtles and lizards. 

It appears that there was not one pathway to our current body plan, but multiple variations, and that these correspond roughly to the four blood types, too.  A, B, AB, and O, shared by the lizard-turtle group. 

The AN Family has amphibian-brain ancestry; our parents were Anu and Ana, and we are spread all over the planet, but mostly in the Northern Hemisphere.  We come in every color and kind and have the blood type A.  [Scandinavians, Russians, Americans, for example. ]

The ISH Family has fish-brain ancestry. These people tend to have blood type B. [British, Finnish, Turkish, Spanish, for example].

The EE Family has snake-brain ancestry; their first parents are by far the most famous: Adam and Eve.  Some of them have blood type AB, and represent a melding of the two earlier blood types. [Hebrews, Greeks, Maltese.]

The UR Family has turtle-brain ancestry and the O Family has lizard-brain ancestry, and both commonly have blood type O.  They love heat and live mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. [Uruguay, Peru, Congo, Venezuela, Ecuador.]

These subtle differences are not generally appreciated, but in the ancient history of the Americas, these Five Nations were well-known — those of us who live in America are living on Turtle Island, and legends abound about the Five Nations of People– the Salamander-People (amphibians), the Fish-People, the Snake People, the Turtle People, and the Lizard People. 

These very ancient stories, legends, and records written on stone and in “books” made of gold relate directly to scientific facts that are only now being explored — thanks to suppression by the Roman Catholic Church, greedy early explorers, and cynical governments. 

In addition to keeping our hearts beating and our lungs breathing, our reptile brains determine our sensitivities to things like radiant energy and magnetism, and account for variations in metabolism.  

Our different kinds of reptile brains may also account for subtle differences in body temperature and whether we, as mammals, are more “hot blooded” or “cold blooded”, anomalies like color blindness, our sense of direction and spatial orientation, and our ability to visualize things spatially versus thinking in words. 

It has long been known that people have different modes of learning new information.  Some people learn better by reading words, some by seeing pictures, some by hearing things spoken, and others by reciting aloud to themselves or a combination of these modes of learning. 

The US Air Force went so far as to develop the “Read, Write, Recite, Repeat” learning protocol to assure that all students are learning, no matter which mode of learning they use.  

Could it be that our favored mode of learning is determined by our reptile brains?  And that academic success or lack thereof is not just a matter of favorite subjects or motivation?  

Maybe we are all wired a bit differently by our differing reptile brains, and so, some people are “mechanically inclined” while others spout poetry?  There is a great deal more to be explored. 

Realizing that The Five Nations are more than whimsical anthropomorphic stories adds a new dimension to understanding ourselves and opens a window on the highly developed cultures that have existed on this planet in the past.  

It also humbles those who have characterized Native Americans as “savages”.  The American Indian Nations of North and South America retained this advanced scientific knowledge for thousands of years, in the form of stories told around campfires.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

06 20 2020 Email Letter to the United Nations June 19 2020



By Anna Von Reitz

Dear Antonio Gutteres, and M. Bachelet, 

In the next few days the Municipal Government of the United States will cease to be, the corporation holding the Legal Titles to the State and Public Trusts, will return to the Equitable Title Holder, the Territorial Government of the United States of America, another corporation which is also in bankruptcy.  

When that happens and the legal title and equitable come back together, the huge phony Public Charitable Trust and the State Trusts will collapse.  

Our government of the people, by the people, and for the people, is the only legitimate government still standing on the land and soil of this country.  

Our States have assembled and our People have stood up.  

We have claimed the trust assets that are rightfully ours and exposed the fraud which has been promoted on our shores in gross Breach of Trust and Breach of Contract by the governmental services corporations, and ultimately, by the Principals responsible for directing those corporations.  

The World Bank, the IBRD, Federal Reserve, IMF, BIS, Bank of New York Mellon, JP Morgan, Bank of America, Deutsche Bank, Credit Suisse, UBS, Bank of Scotland, Bank of England, and Bank of Canada as well as the Vatican Bank, Merrill Lynch, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and other major institutions including the DTCC are up to their necks in fraud, collusion, and racketeering activities designed to defraud the American States and People, and many other nations around the world, who have suffered unlawful conversion and impersonation. 

This email is being sent to you to give you explicit Notice of these facts and their impact not only on our country, but most other countries throughout the world. 

Massive amounts of innocent private assets have been seized upon by these piratical “service” corporations, which have claimed that all these “legacy trusts” and “Special Deposits” which have been purposefully held “off ledger” and made inaccessible to Depositors for decades have been “abandoned”  and self-interested lies to the effect that the owners are “unknown” or “missing lost at sea” have been told in a vain attempt to validate theft by any other name. 

The aim of all this fraud and graft and manipulation has been to steal the assets of the entire world, undermine all national governments, and attempt to excuse this outrageous criminal scheme. 

The aim is to establish a new form of feudalism —- Corporate Feudalism, based on the enslavement of every living being and every natural resource on this planet by a few crazed megalomaniacs, who are for the most part bankers and billionaire Corporatists, like Bill Gates, who are the scions of the Nineteenth Century Robber Barons.   

The Perpetrators propose to use the United Nations Organization as a new store front, after having been discovered using the Roman Catholic Church for the same purposes for centuries.

I hope that this letter finds you well, and has the desired effect of both fully informing and motivating you to: (1) support the lawful government of this country, which is committed to peace; (2) support the return of the lawful physical assets to the people they belong to; (3) short-circuit attempts to reduce the United Nations Organization to a puppet for Evil, instead of an instrument of Good.  


Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary The United States of America [Unincorporated] 

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

05 20 2020 WLM2 White Lives Matter Too



By Anna Von Reitz

So now we got the catchy slogan line, here’s the fact.  All lives matter, and police brutality of all kinds and all levels, has to stop.  Permanently.  And not just for the sake of the victims.  For the sake of all these clueless Law Enforcement Officers, too.  

What I am about to show you is profoundly disturbing, one of five of the worst abuses of police power I have ever seen.  This is not for the faint-hearted.  

What you are going to see is a man who was summoned to show up at a “Federal Court” appearance for a Municipal CITiZEN named after him — and he decided not to go. 

He moved to a different state instead, and a group of U.S. Marshals and LEOs of other stripe decided that he was “fleeing” from their jurisdiction —- when in fact he was never legitimately in their jurisdiction in the first place, and therefore not subject to their court.  Or its Summons.  Or its Arrest Warrants. 

Now, we understand that there is no true Federal Court and hasn’t been since 1860.  We understand that the Territorial and Municipal Courts that remain are just faking it to make it.  They don’t have the authority to issue actual Judicial Warrants and so they issue disguised Impoundment Warrants as “Arrest Warrants” instead.  

Their actual job is to salvage and impound “Special Purpose Vehicles” — and they conveniently mistake men and women as SPVs.   Must have bad eyesight and a helluva imagination.

The problem is that the corporations who hire these men don’t educate them properly, don’t admit the actual circumstance, don’t tell them that they are just “private security agents” — Pinkertons — without any actual public office related to us at all. 

As a result, these men go out and make all sorts of wrong assumptions and do all sorts of crazy things.  Like this: 


Realize that these people are on your payroll and are dumb enough to do this to you and to other law-abiding harmless people — when they don’t actually even have the right or authority to address you.  

They are standing on your land.  They are your employees.

Don’t you think it is about time that you woke up and told them what to do and how to act?

And put a stop to things like this happening in America?  To anyone, black or white?  

Remember, this man isn’t accused of any actual crime.  And he has no reason to “flee” or “evade” something that has nothing to do with him, either. 

This horrific incident is all on the heads of the US Marshals who committed this crime and on the Sheriff’s Deputy who didn’t stop it.  These men are 100% commercially and personally liable for committing this crime, but because the victim is white, this will all get shoved under the rug.  

Bill Barr, the US Attorney General, who is ultimately responsible for the US Marshals “Service”, won’t hear a word about it, won’t take action to correct it, until you all get a hair up your rumps and write him a letter demanding to know WTH???

We’re Americans.  We’re not Dual Federal Citizens now and never have been. We have declared our birthright political status and we are fed up to the gills, sick of being “misaddressed” and attacked as if your Employers were “the Enemy”.  

If, we, your Employers, the people who ultimately pay your salaries, are the Enemy, then none of you are getting a paycheck for the next thousand years and you can all take your Pink Slips and go home, not eligible for rehire or retirement benefits. 

Mr. Barr—–it’s high time you gave your US Marshals proper instructions, paid for this man’s damages, and made sure that nothing like this ever happens again to any American.  Ever. 

For those of you —people of all colors who are as angry as I am about this  misdirection of our employees and abuse of Americans— here’s the address to write to: 

The Honorable William P. Barr

In care of: U.S. Department of Justice

950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20530-0001  

P.S. We are hiring Constitutional Lawyers to go after these LEOs and educate them the hard way.  If you are sick of being limited to being a Bar Attorney and sick of licking their cloven hooves, come on home.  

If you want to put your money to work— slap a note on your check or enclose with your donation to:

Anna Maria Riezinger

c/o Box 520994

Big Lake, Alaska 99652

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com

06 20 2020 The Two Minutes That Can Save Millions of Lives



By Anna Von Reitz

If you do nothing else today, listen to the first link provided below.  And share it.

If you are like me, you have probably had one or more heated exchanges with elderly relatives who are scared out of their minds because they are in a “high risk group” and lining up already to get the new vaccine that is touted as the cure to Covid 19.   

You’ve probably also been told that you are no expert, because you aren’t a virologist.  Well, here’s one of the top virologists in the country laying it out for the dumbfounded.  

Take two minutes out of your life to listen to this very short, very informative video.  It can save your life or the life of someone you love. 

Then, there is Robert F. Kennedy Jr.’s Supreme Court Case, proving that vaccines have no quality control and haven’t been tested for safety for 32 years: 

If they still can’t believe the facts, ask them to read this brief summary from Swiss Policy Research, founded in 2016, as a non-partisan, non-profit, independent fact-checking organization.  You can find the long version with all the citations at their website— but by all means, read this Overview first: 

  1. According to data from the best-studied countries and regions, the lethality of Covid19 is on average about 0.2%, which is in the range of a severe influenza (flu) and about twenty times lower than originally assumed by the WHO.
  2. Even in the global “hotspots”, the risk of death for the general population of school and working age is typically in the range of a daily car ride to work. The risk was initially overestimated because many people with only mild or no symptoms were not taken into account.
  3. Up to 80% of all test-positive persons remain symptom-free. Even among 70-79 year olds, about 60% remain symptom-free. Over 97% of all persons develop mild symptoms at most.
  4. Up to 60% of all persons may already have a certain cellular background immunity to Covid19 due to contact with previous coronaviruses (i.e. common cold viruses).
  5. The median or average age of the deceased in most countries (including Italy) is over 80 years and only about 1% of the deceased had no serious preconditions. The age and risk profile of deaths thus essentially corresponds to normal mortality.
  6. In many countries, up to two thirds of all extra deaths occurred in nursing homes, which do not benefit from a general lockdown. Moreover, in many cases it is not clear whether these people really died from Covid19 or from extreme stress, fear and loneliness.
  7. Up to 50% of all additional deaths may have been caused not by Covid19, but by the effects of the lockdown, panic and fear. For example, the treatment of heart attacks and strokes decreased by up to 60% because many patients no longer dared to go to hospital.
  8. Even in so-called “Covid19 deaths” it is often not clear whether they died from or with coronavirus (i.e. from underlying diseases) or if they were counted as “presumed cases” and not tested at all. However, official figures usually do not reflect this distinction.
  9. Many media reports of young and healthy people dying from Covid19 turned out to be false: many of these young people either did not die from Covid19, they had already been seriously ill (e.g. from undiagnosed leukaemia), or they were in fact 109 instead of 9 years old. The claimed increase in Kawasaki disease in children also turned out to be false.
  10. The normal overall mortality per day is about 8000 people in the US, about 2600 in Germany and about 1800 in Italy. Influenza mortality per season is up to 80,000 in the US and up to 25,000 in Germany and Italy. In several countries Covid19 deaths remained below strong flu seasons.
  11. Regional increases in mortality can occur if there is a collapse in the care of the elderly and sick as a result of infection or panic, or if there are additional risk factors such as severe air pollution. Special regulations for dealing with the deceased sometimes led to additional bottlenecks in funeral or cremation services.
  12. In countries such as Italy and Spain, and to some extent the UK and the US, hospital overloads due to strong flu waves are not unusual. In addition, up to 15% of doctors and health workers were put into quarantine, even if they developed no symptoms.
  13. The often shown exponential curves of “corona cases” are misleading, as the number of tests also increased exponentially. In most countries, the ratio of positive tests to tests overall (i.e. the positive rate) remained constant at 5% to 25% or increased only slightly. In many countries, the peak of the spread was already reached well before the lockdown.
  14. Countries without curfews and contact bans, such as JapanSouth Korea or Sweden, have not experienced a more negative course of events than other countries. Sweden was even praised by the WHO and now benefits from higher immunity compared to lockdown countries.
  15. The fear of a shortage of ventilators was unjustified. According to lung specialists, the invasive ventilation (intubation) of Covid19 patients, which is partly done out of fear of spreading the virus, is in fact often counterproductive and damaging to the lungs.
  16. Contrary to original assumptions, various studies have shown that there is no evidence of the virus spreading through aerosols (i.e. tiny particles floating in the air) or through smear infections (e.g. on door handles or smartphones). The main modes of transmission are direct contact and droplets produced when coughing or sneezing.
  17. There is also no scientific evidence for the effectiveness of face masks in healthy or asymptomatic individuals. On the contrary, experts warn that such masks interfere with normal breathing and may become “germ carriers”. Leading doctors called them a “media hype” and “ridiculous”.
  18. Many clinics in Europe and the US remained strongly underutilized or almost empty during the Covid19 peak and in some cases had to send staff home. Numerous operations and therapies were cancelled, including some organ transplants and cancer screenings.
  19. Several media were caught trying to dramatize the situation in hospitals, sometimes even with manipulative images and videos. In general, the unprofessional reporting of many media maximized fear and panic in the population.
  20. The virus test kits used internationally are prone to errors and can produce false positive and false negative results. Moreover, the official virus test was not clinically validated due to time pressure and may sometimes react positive to other coronaviruses.
  21. Numerous internationally renowned experts in the fields of virology, immunology and epidemiology consider the measures taken to be counterproductive and recommend rapid natural immunisation of the general population and protection of risk groups. The risks for children are virtually zero and closing schools was never medically warranted.
  22. Several medical experts described vaccines against coronaviruses as unnecessary or even dangerous. Indeed, the vaccine against the so-called swine flu of 2009, for example, led to sometimes severe neurological damage and lawsuits in the millions.
  23. The number of people suffering from unemployment, psychological problems and domestic violence as a result of the measures has skyrocketed worldwide. Several experts believe that the measures may claim more lives than the virus itself. According to the UN millions of people around the world may fall into absolute poverty and famine.
  24. NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden warned that the “corona crisis” will be used for the massive and permanent expansion of global surveillance. The renowned virologist Pablo Goldschmidt spoke of a “global media terror” and “totalitarian measures”. Leading British virologist professor John Oxford spoke of a “media epidemic”.
  25. More than 500 scientists have warned against an “unprecedented surveillance of society” through problematic apps for “contact tracing”. In some countries, such “contact tracing” is already carried out directly by the secret service. In several parts of the world, the population is already being monitored by drones and facing serious police overreach.
  26. A 2019 WHO study on public health measures against pandemic influenza found that from a medical perspective, “contact tracing” is “not recommended in any circumstances”.

And finally, here is the One Shot Mask Killer Argument that all State of State Governors need to get in their inbox —- mandatory masks, contact tracing, invasive snooping of any kind —– is against Federal Law: 

The American Disabilities Act and HIPAA both protect people’s health privacy. 

Don’t “volunteer” to give away your health privacy, because that can lead to the legal presumption that you have Covid-19 and that you are a Municipal US citizen —- a PERSON that can be arrested and indefinitely detained. 

I pasted this into my photo program and printed them nine to a page, cut these wallet-sized cards out and began distributing them to local businesses that had gone beyond the pale. In almost no time at all, those same businesses dropped the Mask Mantra and got back in line.  

If you want my opinion, Covid-19 is a “Stupid Test” —- to see just how far the corporations can go in creating BS and also how far the Public will obey them.

See this article and over 2500 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com